Non-potash salt & brines

(1.5 days total for listed modules)

Sodic salts

Natural sodium bicarbonate and sodium sulfate salts, as well as sodium chloride, supply significant volumes of feedstock to the world’s industrial chemicals industries.

The various salts precipitate with textures and mineral suites indicative of their formative hydrology and tectonic settings. Utilizing this knowledge enables the construction of predictive models.

         Code #    Topic

  • 2425.01 Soda-ash geology
  • 2425.02 Salt-cake geology
  • 2425.03 Sodium chloride plants
  • 2425.04 Climate & brine state
  • 2425.05 The future for non-potash salts

Trona mine, Wyoming


Major commercial borate deposits occur in a limited number of Neogene to Holocene non-marine evaporitic settings, generally tied to volcanic and pyroclastic deposits in closed-basin alkaline lakes, fed by hydrothermal waters. Borates are open-pit mined at the Kramer mine in Boron California, in the Kirka ore district of Turkey, and Tincalayu in northern Argentina.


         Code #    Topic

  • 2450.01     Boron chemistry
  • 2450.02     Sites of enrichment
  • 2450.03     Tectonic association
  • 2450.04     Borate occurrences in deep time
  • 2450.05     Predictive models


Lithium pans, Atacama

Lithium-rich brines

In the last two decades, Chile has emerged as the world’s largest lithium-carbonate producer from a lake brine, largely through the exploitation of Salar de Atacama, Chile, followed by China with operations focused in the Qaidam Basin and small-scale operations at Lake Zabuye. Quaternary lithium brines accumulations are latitudinally restricted to cool arid belts within endorheic continental brine sumps.


         Code #    Topic

  • 2475.01     Brine chemistry
  • 2475.02     Porosity limitations
  • 2475.03     Predictive models
  • 2475.04     Occurrences with potential for LiCO3



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