Salty Matters

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Non-solar thick salt masses: Part 1 - Mixing zone and cryogenic (freeze-dried) salts

John Warren - Saturday, May 18, 2019

Introduction

Conceptually, what defines evaporite sediment is broad, within the general theme that the rock was precipitated initially during solar heating of a brine. Heating drives the loss of water as vapour and concentrates of the residual brine to elevated salinities where a suite of evaporite salts precipitate (Babel and Schreiber, 2014; Warren 2016). In a modern marine-fed brine pan the precipitative sequence evolves from carbonate through gypsum, to halite and on into the various bittern salts (Figure 1).


But, evaporite salts are also highly reactive. Even in a simple single-pan evaporation scenario, crystallising salts tend to alter, backreact, replace, dissolve and reprecipitate. Then, as bedded sedimentary salts attain the subsurface and are exposed to increasing temperature and pressure, they continue to alter. Hydrated minerals, such as gypsum or carnallite transform into anhydrous phases such as anhydrite or sylvite. At the same time, thick halite beds tend to flow into halokinetic salt structures with a complete loss of depositional textures.

Some authors restrict the term "evaporite" to sediments forged by evaporation and use "saline deposit" or "salt deposit" for units formed not only by evaporation but also by ongoing alteration, cooling, heating or salting out in hydrothermal and diagenetic settings. Hence, the term salt structure rather than evaporite structure to describe many subsurface features encompassing the outcomes of halokinesis (salt flow). Some authors have suggested other names for the various bedded salt rocks precipitated by mechanisms other than solar heating of a brine; however, these names (burial salt, hydrothermal salt, reactionite, mixing precipitate, thermalite, replacementite, etc.) are not in general use in the sedimentological community.

In the subsurface sedimentary realm, most of the diagenetic processes described in preceding paragraphs have acted on a mass of salt first deposited by solar heating of brine and so are considered "true evaporites". This is so even though textures, total volumes of salts and mineralogies may have changed. Diagenetic processes acting on evaporite masses may also have transposed portions of the original salt mass into nearby saline cements within adjacent non-evaporite lithologies. These diagenetic or burial salt sediments lie outside the focus of this present series of articles, which will discuss mechanisms capable of precipitating large volumes of salts on or near the earth's surface without solar-driven heating of a brine (see Warren, 2016; Chapter 1 and 8 for a discussion of diagenetic or burial salts).

Cryogenesis, brine-mixing and mantle-driven thermal processes are the main surface and shallow-subsurface processes capable of precipitating significant volumes of non-evaporite salts. Many of the salt bodies precipitated in this way have similar mineralogies to those found in evaporite successions. So this, and the next Salty Matters article focus on mechanisms and products created by non-evaporite precipitation. I will attempt to define criteria that allow their separation from "true" evaporites. In this first article, we focus on mechanisms of brine mixing and cryogenesis, in the second we shall look at salt masses crystallising from fluids created and driven by mantle heating and cooling.

Some basic salt chemistry

Before that, we need to discuss a few basic chemical properties that define a crystal's response to heating and cooling of an enclosing brine. The questions we must ask are; in the ambient conditions are we dealing with influencing a prograde or retrograde salt phase and does the particular salt of interest undergo congruent or incongruent dissolution?

Prograde or retrograde salt?

A prograde salt crystallises as a brine cools and dissolve as brine is heated. With prograde salts, the average kinetic energy of the molecules in brine increases with temperature. The increase in kinetic energy allows solvent molecules to more effectively break apart the solute molecules; hence solubility increases with temperature and decreases with cooling. Halite and sylvite are both prograde salts (Figure 2a). When a shallow surface brine rich in either NaCl or KCl at say 45-50°C cools overnight, it will precipitate halite or sylvite-carnallite on the pan floor. If it sinks into an underlying porous salt bed and cools, it will precipitate as intercrystalline cement. This is happening beneath the salt flats of Dabuxum Lake in the Qaidam Basin of China where intercrystalline carnallite fill pores in a halite bed. In the deeper crust, with ongoing magmatic heating, the solubility of sodium chloride increases to where just below its critical point (≈400°C), salt content in a NaCl brine could be as high as 40 weight percent (see next article).

 

A retrograde (temperature-inverse) salt precipitates with increasing temperature and dissolves if it sits in a cooling saturated brine. Anhydrite is a retrograde salt and like all retrograde salts produces heat when dissolved in water (exothermic reaction). In an exothermic reaction the resulting additional heat shifts the equilibrium towards the reactants (Ca + SO4 --> CaSO4) (Figure 3b). In contrast, the hydrated form of CaSO4, gypsum, follows a prograde solubility curve, whereby in the temperature range where gypsum is the stable CaSO4 phase (<40-45°C) it is increasingly soluble with increasing temperature (Figure 3a). At higher temperatures (>45-50°C) both gypsum (where stable) and anhydrite possess retrograde solubility. Thus, when two anhydrite-saturated waters of different temperatures mix in the subsurface, the result is supersaturated brine with a propensity to precipitate anhydrite. A combination of retrograde solubility and brine mixing helps explain why anhydrite is a commonplace hydrothermal precipitate in mid-oceanic ridges and smoker chimneys (see next article).

On land, beneath the immediate surface of Abu Dhabi and Saudi sabkhas, the heating of desert playa and sabkha waters, rising through the capillary zone, to temperatures above 35°C drives the precipitation of CaSO4 (as nodular anhydrite) in a fashion that Wood et al. (2002, 2005) terms a sabkha thermalite (see Warren, 2016 for sabkha discussion). A reverse thermal gradient (upward cooling) in the winter sabkha permits dissolution of some of the previously precipitated retrograde minerals. Because the negative thermal gradient is less in the winter than the positive thermal gradient of the summer, but with nearly the same water flux, the cooling water cannot dissolve all of the mineral mass that precipitated in the previous summer. Thus, there is a net accumulation of retrograde (thermalitic) anhydrite nodules and layers in the capillary zone of an Abu Dhabi sabkha (Wood et al. 2005 ).

Brine mixing drives precipitation or dissolution of salts

Van’t Hoff’s work in physical chemistry, which won him the first Nobel Prize in Chemistry, showed that salts would precipitate at chemically-suitable brine interfaces. At that interface, all that is needed is a mixing of waters of two saturation states, with respect to the mineral of interest (Figure 3a). When two waters that are saturated with a particular salt phase are mixed, the resulting solution can be undersaturated or supersaturated with respect to that particular phase (Figure 3a). The saturation state during mixing depends on the convex or concave shape of the solubility curve for the mineral phase of interest and the parameter of interest (ion concentration, temperature, salinity, etc.). The only requirement is that the solubility curve for that particular component is nonlinear.

 

Raup (1970, 1982) in several experiments showed how halite and gypsum could be precipitated by the mixing of two seawater brines of differing salinity and densities. Figure 3b plots experimental results for the mixing of various low and high-density seawater brines and the resulting amount of gypsum precipitated (Raup, 1982). A similar plot can be drawn for the mixing of more saline NaCl (seawater) brines (Figure 4a, b; Raup, 1970).

Hence blending brines with different temperatures or salinities can be an important salting-out mechanism in the calcium sulphate (gypsum/anhydrite) salt system where gypsum follows a nonlinear solubility trend, as do saturated brines in a halite-MgCl2 bittern system (Raup, 1970, 1982). Figure 2b shows the solubility curves of both gypsum and anhydrite plotted with respect to increasing temperature in pure water. For gypsum, it clearly shows that when two gypsum-saturated waters with different temperatures mix in its stability range then the resulting solution is undersaturated and so gypsum tends to dissolve (Upper left curve in Figure 2b). In contrast, gypsum drops out of solution when two brines of differing density mix, with the amount of gypsum dependent on the density contrast between the two brines (Figure 3b).

Anhydritic solubility drives complex diagenetic effects when CaSO4-saturated brines mix via dispersion into adjacent less saline brines (Figure 2b). This happens in brine reflux systems where dense CaSO4-saturated brine plumes, derived at the surface at halite saturation, sink into and interact with less saline brines held in underlying or adjacent anhydritic carbonates. If the temperature remains near constant the tendency in this zone of dispersion or mixing is to dissolve gypsum, creating vugular porosity in the interval below or adjacent to a thick salt sequence. If temperature decreases and the brine plume cools, with little change in ionic proportions due to mixing, then the tendency is to precipitate anhydrite. It is not a simple system, with temperature and mixing processes pulling the brine chemistry in opposite directions.

A similar salting-out of halite occurs when halite-saturated brine mix with either MgCl2 or CaCl2 brine (Figure 4a, b, respectively). In potash basins, MgCl2-saturated brines are created by the incongruent dissolution of carnallite, while CaCl2 brines can typify the brine products of basinal hydrothermal waters. In both cases, the result is a sparry, relatively inclusion-free halite cement. Depending or the location where this mixing occurred, the cement can be part of a bedded carnallite unit that is converting to sylvite, or it can be localised in a fracture fill or form an intergranular cement in a non-evaporite host lithology.


Salt precipitation, driven by brine mixing, occurs in many stratified at-surface and shallow subsurface diagenetic interfaces in evaporitic settings. But, it is in the context of the mixing of deeply circulating mantle brines that it may be capable of precipitating significant volumes of salt and it in this context we shall discuss it further in the next article.


Cryogenic salts

Cryogenic brines and associated salts require temperatures at or below the freezing point of the liquid phase. These salts crystallise from a cold, near-freezing, residual brine as it concentrates via the loss of its liquid phase, which is converting/solidifying to ice (Figure 5a). As brine concentration increases, the freezing temperature decreases and minerals such as ikaite, hydrohalite, mirabilite, epsomite, potash bitterns and antarcticite can crystallise from the freezing brine (Figure 5a, b; Table 1; Warren, 2016; Chapter 12). Brine freezing ends when the phase cehemistry attains the eutectic point is reached. This is the point when all compounds (including H2O) pass to the solid state. Depending on the initial mineralization and compostion of the brine, the eutectic point is reached between -21 and -54 °C (Marion et al., 1999; Strakhov, 1970).


Cryogenic concentration of seawater precipitates mirabilite at four times seawater salinity and hydrohalite at eight times. In contrast, evaporating seawater precipitates gypsum at 4-5 times the original concentration and halite and 10-11 times (Figure 6). Evaporative gypsum precipitation decreases the relative proportions of both Ca and SO4 in the brine, while cryogenic precipitation of mirabilite decreases the sulphate proportion and drives the inflexion of the Na cryogenic curve slightly earlier than Na inflexion created by the precipitation of evaporative halite. In both the freezing and the evaporation situations, the brine remains chloride dominant prior to bittern crystallisation. Freezing seawater becomes increasingly sulphate enriched to where sulphate levels exceed sodium around 20 times the initial concentration. Evaporating seawater remains a Na-Cl dominant brine until the bittern stage is reached around 60 times the initial concentration (Warren, 2016, Chapter 2).


Mirabilite (NaSO4.10H2O) is one of several sodium sulphate salts and is stable in sulphate brines at temperatures lower than a few centigrade degrees (Figure 7a). Hence, it is a commonplace cold-climate lacustrine precipitate (Figure 8a-d; Table 1). Mirabilite beds are commercially exploited in colder climates; their latitudinal and altitudinal occurrences illustrate an interesting climatic dichotomy inherent to economic deposits of the various sodium sulphate salts. One sodium sulphate grouping of exploited deposits is characterised by mirabilite precipitated via brine freezing, as in the Great Salt Lake, Karabogazgol and Hedong (Yucheng) salt lake (Table 1 and illustrated in Figure 8a-d). The other sodium sulphate salt grouping is characterised by varying combinations of glauberite (CaSO4.Na2SO4)/bloedite-astrakanite (Na2SO4.MgSO4.4H2O) salts, which crystallised at higher temperatures via the evaporation of continental brines in saline groundwater sumps in warm to hot arid climates (as discussed in Warren, 2016, Chapter 12).


The climatic dichotomy reflects the fact that sodium sulphate solubility in water changes as a nonlinear function of temperature (Figure 7a). Below 1.2°C, ice and mirabilite tend to precipitate as seawater or a sodium sulphate brine freezes. As the temperature increases above 0°C, increasing amounts of hydrous sodium sulphate (as the decahydrate, mirabilite) become soluble, while the anhydrous form (thenardite- NaSO4) becomes the precipitative phase in brines saturated with respect to the sodium sulphate. At 32.4°C in pure water, a transition point on the solubility curve is reached, whereby mirabilite melts in its water of crystallisation and thenardite crystallises. Presence of other dissolved salts changes the transition temperature and solubility characteristics of sodium sulphate due to the double salt effect.


Cryogenesis in saline lacustrine sumps

Every year, once the water temperatures drop below 5.5-6°C in late November in Karabogazgol, mirabilite precipitates as transparent crystals on the embayment bottom. The crystals are then transported by wind and wave action, especially during winter storms, into low dunes lining shore-zone (Figure 8b). By mid-March when the bay waters are heated to over 6°C, the mirabilite on the bay floor begins to redissolve. By July–August the entire precipitated mirabilite crop in the bay has redissolved. Historically, the period from November through March was a period of ‘‘harvesting’’ mirabilite on the bay shores. In summer with its arid climate, any remaining strandzone salt converts to thenardite (Na2SO4), and this too was gathered at the end of each summer.


Below the floor of Karabogazgol are four NaSO4 beds that are likely cryogenic remnants from colder climatic periods over the last 10,000 years (Figure 9; Karpychev, 2007). Back then, large amounts of mirabilite formed each winter, much like today but, unlike today, the colder more humid glacial climate meant the bay was not as subject to summer desiccation and warming. Dense residual bottom brines were perennially ponded and so preserved a summer-halite sealing bed. This allowed the underlying mirabilite/epsomite winter precipitates to be preserved across the lake floor. During the following winter, the process was repeated as mirabilite/epsomite/halite couplets stacked one atop the other to create a future ore horizon. In time, the combination of groundwater and exposure, especially nearer the Gulf’s strandzone, converted most of the mirabilite, along with epsomite, to astrakanite, and then both phases to glauberite in the upper three beds. This explains the association of the richer glauberite zones with the lake edges (Figure 9a; Strakhov, 1970). Water of crystallisation released by the subsequent mirabilite to thenardite conversion, slightly diluted any strong residual brines, facilitating a dominant sodium-sulphate mineral and brine composition across the bay (Kurilenko et al., 1988).

Winter mirabilite also crystallises cryogenically from Kuchuk Lake brines on the Kulunda Steppe, southwest of Novosibirsk, western Siberia (Kurilenko, 1997; Garrett, 2001. The lake area is 170 km2, and brine depth is around 3.2 metres. In 1938 that lake was estimated to contain some 540 million mt of equivalent sodium sulfate. Thick, glassy mirabilite occurs as two crystalline layers, the upper one is around 3 m thick, and both layers are pure containing <1% other soluble salts. In total, the crystalline mirabilite interval ranges up to 7 m thick, covers around 133 km2 and is overlain by a 0.05- to 2-m thick unconsolidated interval of mud and salt oozes. The ooze typically contains some 40.5% salts, 20.6% water, and 38.9% insolubles (including considerable gypsum). Much of the mirabilite in the upper ooze layer has been transformed into thenardite, with the previous water of crystallisation supply much of the dense brine held in the ooze, which also contains halite, glauberite, hydrohalite and epsomite.

Mirabilite crystallises from the lake brine during the winter and cool summer evenings (volume estimated to be ≈ 340-580 thousand mt/yr of mirabilite). Then, during the warm summer months, some of it converts to thenardite. A limited amount of insoluble accumulates with the crystals, forming thin layers of mud with the thenardite. Brine in the lake has a 10-31% soluble salt content, depending upon the season and lake level. Every every three years, at the end of summer this brine is pumped to solar ponds to allow cryogenic mirabilite to crystallise during the autumn (a process similar to the production of mirabilite in the Canadian Salt Lake (Warren 2016, Chapter 12). Residual brine in the ponds is returned to the lake before winter sets in, and the ponds are harvested as needed for the production of sodium sulfate (Charykova et al., 1996). For most of a year, the lake's surface brine is a magnesium chloride water, but during the summer it changes to a sodium sulfate base, because of the dissolving of the underlying mirabilite, thenardite, and glauberite held in the lake floor oozes.

Ebeity (Ebeyty) Lake, located 110 km west of Omsk, is another cryogenic salt lake with a cyclic pattern of mirabilite crystallising in the winter and having it dissolve in the summer (Garrett, 2001; Kolpakova et al., 2018). Brine concentration can reach 30-31% total salts by the end of summer and can begin to crystallise halite (which usually dissolves in the spring). Mirabilite deposition starts when the brine temperature in the lake is less than 18-19°C (which can be as early as August or September). At 0°C, 70% of the sodium sulfate has crystallised from the lake brine. At -10°C, 85% has been deposited, and at -15°C 98%. At -7°C some ice crystallizes with the mirabilite, and at -21.8°C hydrohalite forms. The lake does not freeze solid because of the insulating effect of surface layers of snow on top of floating mirabilite rafts, but brine temperatures of -23.5°C have been recorded (Strakhov, 1970). The winter deposit of mirabilite, with some hydrohalite, covers the entire lake bottom is 25-30 cm thick and is quite pure. Laboratory tests have shown the soluble salts in this mirabilite, including hydrohalite, can be almost completely removed (i.e., reduced to 0.08%) by a single stage of washing.

Hydrohalite is a stable precipitate in a freezing brine only when the water temperature is below 0°C. In a NaCl–H2O system in the laboratory, hydrohalite is a stable phase that begins to precipitate cryogenically at temperatures below 0.12 °C, forming hydrohalite and a brine solution until it reaches the eutectic point for a solution saturated with NaCl at −21.1°C, where the remaining solution freezes (Figure 7b). Above 0.12 °C hydrohalite melts incongruently and decomposes to NaCl and a NaCl-saturated solution, losing 54.3% of its volume (Craig et al., 1974, 1975; Light et al., 2009). Hydrohalite (NaCl.2H2O) crystals have pseudo-hexagonal cross sections and are found in a number of modern cold saline lakes and springs (Table 1, Figure 8e-f).

Cryogenesis in salty springs

The mutual occurrence and downdip evolution of mirabilite/thenardite and hydrohalite/halite in brine spring encrustations (barrage structures) downdip of Stolz diapir on Axel Heiberg Island in the Canadian Archipelago illustrate the ephemeral nature of cryogenic salts on the Earths surface, even in extremely cold settings (Fox-Powell et al., 2018; Ward and Pollard, 2018). The halite-exposed core of the Stolz dome rises some 250 m above the adjacent flood plain, while the salt/hydrohalite deposit occurs autochthonously within a narrow, steep-sided tributary valley carved by a small stream fed mainly by perennial groundwater discharge emanating from the base of the diapir. The host valley begins abruptly at the spring outlet and is incised through surficial colluvial and glacial sediments into steeply dipping bedrock (shale). The Stolz diapir is the only diapir within the archipelago where the halite core is exposed, and the surface is extensively karstified with a suffusion cover, along with several large sinkholes and collapse structures.


The cryogenically influenced part of the at-surface salt deposit is approximately 800 m long and is thickest at the spring outlet (≈4.0 m) and gradually thins down-valley until it fans out, creating a salt pan that extends 300 m into the Whitsunday River floodplain. The morphology of the deposit is characterised by a series of salty barrage structures that staircase down the valley until the dispersing and dissolving at the valley opening. The barrages are constructed of salts but morphologically resemble typical fluvial travertines and tufas and are predominantly curvilinear with a downstream convexity, particularly the larger dams in the upper valley.

Sub-zero air temperatures persist at the site for at least ten months of the year, and the spring’s outlet temperature is relatively constant at −1.9°C ±0.1°C, confirming the presence of permafrost and so facilitating the precipitation of mirabilite and hydrohalite via freezing of spring waters (Figure 8f). In July air temperatures reach 5° - 6°C.

Although initial precipitates in the permafrost zone of the spring outflow are cryogenic (mirabilite and hydrohalite) the presence of these cryogenic salts in the spring precipitates is ephemeral (Figure 10).

The main body of a deposit is layered (Figure 4a, b) with alternating light and dark bands interpreted by Ward and Pollard (2018) as alternating periods of winter hydrohalite deposition and periods of summer pool drainage, when hydrohalite decomposes, and halite/thenardite sediment is deposited (Figure 11). As layers likely reflect an annual couplet cycle, then single winter accumulations can be as thin as a few millimetres in some parts of the deposit and as much as half a meter in others. It appears the accumulation phase ends as pools drain in early May corresponding with mean daily temperatures rising above 0°C. The darker layers are generated during summer as the hydrohalite decomposes leaving a granular halite crust with a veneer of fine clastic sediment transported into the deposit by wind, rain and runoff from adjacent slopes (during the spring snowmelt). The contact between the primary sediment and halite is abrupt and unconformable. The excavation of the deposit revealed numerous thin frozen layers (Figure 4c). These layers first appear ≈47cm below the surface, and overlying unfrozen material is considered analogous to an active layer in permafrost (Ward and Pollard, 2018). Samples of frozen salt collected from this layer and exposed to ambient air temperatures in summer reverted to a mixture of brine and halite grains (Figure 4d-e). It is not clear if these are residual hydrohalite layers preserved by thicker precipitate accumulations or if they represent secondary hydrohalite formation.


The lack of mirabilite or thernadite within the upper portion of the stream/spring deposit is thought to be due to the low kinetic rates of precipitation for sulfate salts (Ward and Pollard, 2018). Below the halfway point, thernadite is present (Figure 8f). This is also reflected in the SO4 concentrations along the spring in winter, as the precipitation of mirabilite removes sulfate ions from solution beyond the halfway point. Based on the morphology of the crystals observed in the deposit, the low concentration of sulfate ions compared to chloride ions, as well as the extensive identification of halite in the XRD samples, the deposit is dominated by hydrohalite (not mirabilite), which decomposes to halite in the summer and at the same time the mirabilite that is present dehydrates to thenardite (Figure 11).

Glacial and sea-ice cryogenesis

Whenever polar seawater freezes, salts precipitate in the increasingly dense residual brines held in inclusions or fissures in the ice (Butler et al., 2016). Salts that are known to precipitate within the freezing brine include CaCO3.6H2O (ikaite), Na2SO4.10H2O (mirabilite), NaCl.2H2O (hydrohalite), KCl (sylvite), and MgCl2.12H2O (magnesium dichloride dodecahydrate), while hydrohalite is the most abundant salt to precipitate in sea ice (Light et al., 2009). In the seawater system, hydrohalite begins to precipitate at -22.9C, and further cooling results in additional precipitation until the source of Na is exhausted at the eutectic (Figure 7b).

Salts do not only accumulate in sea ice. As dense brines and inclusion waters in flowing glacial ice sink into underlying rocks they can accumulate in ice sheet fissures at the base of the ice, or in load-induced fractures in the ice understory (Herut et al., 1990). Residual dense interstitial saline brines are found in pore waters extracted from deep cores sampling submarine sediments in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica (Frank et al., 2010). It seems that when ice sheets retreat, the at-surface cryogenic salts dissolve into a freshening at-surface hydrology, but dense hypersaline brines remain behind in deep fissures, held and preserved in the rock fractures (Starinsky and Katz, 2003).

In the extreme setting of at-surface brine freezing in small saline depressions in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica, a solid form of calcium chloride, antarcticite, grows cryogenically in what is probably the most saline perennial natural water mass in the world (47% salinity in Don Juan Pond, Antarctica; Figure 8g-h; Horita et al., 2009).


Mirabilite beds are known to be exposed atop ice floes of the Ross Ice Shelf near immediately down dip of the Hobbs glacier, on Cape Barne on Ross Island and in the vicinity of Cape Spirit, Black Island (Figure 12a; Brady and Batts, 1981). The bed is made up of relatively pure mirabilite that in places is more than a metre thick (Figure 12b). It is exposed in three coast-parallel ice pressure ridge systems and may not be continuous between the three sampling sites. According to Brady and Batts (1981), the mirabilite formed in response to a recent retreat of the Ross Ice Shelf that began some 840 years ago.

The upper contact of the ice beneath the McMurdo mirabilite bed is not conformable as there are often small irregularities and undulations in its surface ranging from 2 to 6 cm high (Figure 12b). These undulations control the thickness of a silty sand interval (0-8cm thick) separating the ice from the mirabilite. The upper surface of the basal sediment layer defines a sharp conformable contact with the overlying mirabilite bed. This basal sediment layer is devoid of internal bedding and consists of 80% glacial flour mixed with sand and small pebbles. The sediment also contains many ice-crushed fragments of marine diatoms and sponge spicules (< 10 µm long).

The overlying mirabilite bed is massive up to 1/2m thick and primarily made up of transparent cm-scale crystal clusters. Locally crystals can aggregate into large granules up to 95 mm across, that when exposed to air are coated by an anhydrous sodium sulphate powder rind Although there is no apparent bedding in the mirabilite bed, small pods and layered stringers of pebbly sand do occur. These are usually parallel or sub-parallel to the salt bed layer itself and vary in thickness from 0 to 12 cm. Broken shell fragments occur as rare isolated individual fragments in the salt. When the mirabilite is dissolved in distilled water, some fine mud and rare sand grains are recovered, as well as a perfectly preserved flora of non-marine diatoms.

A lag of sediment, pebbles, cobbles, and boulders covers the mirabilite bed. The majority of the class are erratics, some of which are striated and come from the McMurdo alkaline volcanic province. There are also some erratics of gneiss, granite, and sandstone from continental suites. This lag is mostly overlain by a non-marine microbial mat (0-26 cm thick) but, in some places, the mat underlies or is mixed with the boulder lag. One mat sample collected 4 m above the level of the pool-and-channel systems on a pressure ridge at site 1, yielded a radiocarbon age of 870±70 years n.p. This single date cannot be used to date the whole mat since algae are still growing in pools in small depressions atop the salt deposit. The algal mat contains non-marine diatoms, but these are not as numerous as in nearby pools on the present-day ice shelf.

Debenham (1920) suggested that the mirabilite he had observed on the Ross Ice Shelf was formed under the ice shelf by precipitation from brines. But it is unlikely that extensive linear pods and beds of friable salt could be brought directly to the surface by anchor ice; furthermore, the salt beds contain non-marine diatoms that indicate surface precipitation (Brady and Batts, 1981). Since non-marine diatoms have only settled in the salt itself, it would seem that the basal sediment layer was formed immediately after the injection of a sub-ice-shelf brine and before non-marine algal production in the brine pools.

Hence, Brady and Batts (1981) conclude that mother brines first formed underneath an ice shelf from freezing sea-water. These brines were displaced to the ice-shelf surface by the weight of a large area of thick ice shelf as it grounded. Fine marine sediment carried in suspension by these brines settled to form an irregular thin discontinuous basal sediment layer containing marine diatoms. Mirabilite then crystallised cryogenically from this brine. During precipitation of the massive mirabilite beds, some non-marine diatoms, which can tolerate the high salt content of Antarctic saline lakes, were deposited with the salt. After the deposition of the mirabilite, massive non-marine algal production occurred, forming a thick irregular mat up to 26 cm thick on the mirabilite surface.

Mirabilite beds lying on the Ross Island coast near Cape Barne and on the mainland near Hobbs Glacier likely formed in the same manner as those at Cape Spirit. That is, they were stranded on the coast as the ice shelf retreated to its present position in the south of McMurdo Sound during the last interglacial period.


Extraterrestial cryogenic salts

Cryogenic gypsum is released via ice ablation and is spread widely by katabatic winds across the circumpolar Martian dunefields (Table 2). Hydrated and calcium perchlorate cryogenic salts grow seasonally in soils of Mars and typify slope lineae on parts of the Marian surface Lineae activity is possibly tied to periodic release of liquid water in paces on the Martian surface. More than 3 billion years ago, evaporitic halite once precipitated in impact sumps on the surface of Mars.

Cryogenesis explains the presence of hydrated magnesium sulphate salts in megapolygonal ice-crack fissures that crisscross the icy surfaces of Europa and Ganymede (moons of Jupiter) (Table 2; (Figure 13). The presence of hydrated magnesium sulphate and sodium carbonate salts indicates the presence of liquid salty oceans up to 100 km deep below an icy crust that is tens of kilometres thick (McCord et al., 1998; Craft et al., 2016. The fissures indicate an icy type of plate tectonics driven by strong tides in response to the varying gravitational pull of nearby Jupiter. Similar plumes of icy saline water escape from cracks and cryovolcanoes on the surface of Enceladus, an icy moon that circle Saturn. Spectral analysis shows the escaping plumes of Enceladus contain a variety of sodium and potassium salts (Postberg et al., 2011.


Recognition of ancient terrestrial cryogenic salts

Outside of relatively unaltered cool-temperature Quaternary lacustrine, permafrost and ice examples, as listed in Table 1, dehydration linked to the heating inherent to burial diagenesis will create mineralogical and textural difficulties in reliably interpreting the remains of ancient cryogenic salt beds. This is because all ionic salts forming in ambient surface conditions become metastable in the subsurface as they experience increased temperatures, pressures and evolving pore-fluid chemistries inherent to the diagenetic realm (Warren, 2016).

Across all subsurface and re-exhumed ancient examples, the original low-temperature cryogenic salts (mirabilite, hydrohalite) will be long gone. Anhydrous salty remnants (thenardite, halite) may be preserved but are typically altered, replaced and dissolved. This makes it more challenging to assign a depositional setting to a cryogenic salt than it is to a typical evaporite.

In their study of Miocene lacustrine thenardite in the Tajo Basin, Spain, Herrero et al. (2015) used three main criteria to suggest the conversion from a cold climate mirabilite precursor They were; 1) inclusion chemistry in the thenardite, 2) cooler climate mammal fauna synchronous with deposition of sodium sulphate salts and, 3) widespread dewatering structures tied to a burial transition from mirabilite to thenardite. A perusal of the depositional settings in the Quaternary examples listed in Table 1, underlines the conclusion that a glaciogenic association should be added as a fourth recognition criterion. Almost every case is either underlain or overlain by varying combinations of glacial till, glacial flour or glacial laminites with dropstones (Table 3).


In terms of pre-Quaternary deposits of sodium sulphate salts, it was noted by Warren (2010, 2016), that the greater majority of economic deposits are Neogene sediments. Pre-Neogene cryogenic deposits are typically so diagenetically altered that no significant volumes of the original metastable NaSO4 cryogenic salts remain. Across all pre-Neogene greenhouse climate settings, that is across times that lack permanent polar ice sheets, there is little documentation of preserved volumes of cryogenic salts. Worldwide warmer temperatures mean it is unlikely there were extensive cryogenic salt beds. This leaves past periods in Earth history when the planet was in ice-house mode as possible times of cryogenic salt deposits were possible. As yet, no pre-Neogene cryogenic salt beds are known. Mirabilite/hydrohalite deposits have been inferred to be reasonable at tropical latitudes during the Neoproterozoic snowball period (Light et al. 2009; Carns et al., 2015)). Their presence has bee inferred to have increased albedo in tropical ice sublimation regions and so modify climate models, but as yet no evidence of their existence is known either then or in younger Ordovician or Permo-Carboniferous ice-age sediments. Likewise, the presence of glauberite in Permian lithologies is not diagnostic; glauberite forms from evaporating marine waters at times of MgSO4 -enriched oceans (Hardie 1985; Warren, 2016).

Cryogenic salts are an extreme end-member of the concept of "the salt that was." Across past geological time, beyond Neogene remnants, even with isotopic and inclusion techniques, it is next to impossible to identify a cryogenic evaporite reliably.

As W. Edwards Deming (Engineer and statistician, 1900-1993) once said "...Without data, you're just another person with an opinion."

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Brine evolution and origins of potash: primary or secondary? SOP in Quaternary saline lakes: Part 2 of 2

John Warren - Friday, November 30, 2018

 


Introduction

This, the second in this series of articles on potash brine evolution deals with production of sulphate of potash in plants that exploit saline hydrologies hosted in Quaternary saline sumps. There are two settings where significant volumes of sulphate of potash salts are economically produced at the current time; the Ogden salt pans on the northeast shore of the Great Salt Lake in Utah and Lop Nur in China. Although potassium sulphate salts precipitate if modern seawater is evaporated to the bittern stage, as yet there is no operational SOP plant utilising seawater. This is due to concurrent elevated levels of magnesium and chlorine in the bittern, a combination that favours the precipitation of carnallite concurrently with the precipitation of double sulphate salts, such as kainite (Figure 1). Until now, this makes the processing of the multi-mineralogic precipitate for a pure SOP product too expensive when utilising a marine brine feed.

 

Potash in Great Salt Lake, USA (SOP evolution with backreactions)

Today sulphate of potash fertiliser is produced via a combination of solar evaporation and brine processing, using current waters of the Great Salt Lake, Utah, as the brine feed into the Ogden salt pans, which are located at the northeastern end of the Great Salt Lake depression in Utah (Figure 2a). A simpler anthropogenic muriate of potash (MOP) brine evolution occurs in the nearby Wendover salt pans on the Bonneville salt flats. There, MOP precipitates as sylvinite in concentrator pans (after halite). The Bonneville region has a bittern hydrochemistry not unlike like the evolved Na-Cl brines of Salar de Atacama, as documented in the previous article, but it is a brinefield feed without the elevated levels of lithium seen in the Andean playa (Figure 3b).

Great Salt Lake brine contains abundant sulphate with levels sufficiently above calcium that sulphate continues to concentrate after most of the Ca has been used up in the precipitation of both aragonite and gypsum. Thus, as the brines in the anthropogenic pans at Ogden approach the bittern (post halite) stage, a series of sulphate double salts precipitate (Figure 4), along with carnallite and sylvite.


Great Salt Lake brines

The ionic proportions in the primary brine feed that is the endorheic Great Salt Lake water depends on a combination of; 1) the inflow volumes from three major rivers draining the ranges to the east, 2) groundwater inflow, 3) basin evaporation, and 4) precipitation (rainfall/snowfall) directly on the lake (Jones et al., 2009). Major solute inputs can be attributed to calcium bicarbonate-type river waters mixing with sodium chloride-type springs, which are in part hydrothermal and part peripheral recycling agents for NaCl held in the lake sediments. Spencer et al. (1985a) noted that prior to 1930, the lake concentration inversely tracked lake volume, which reflected climatic variation in the drainage. However, since that time, salt precipitation, primarily halite and mirabilite, and dissolution have periodically modified lake brine chemistry and led to density stratification and the formation of brine pockets of different composition.

Complicating these processes is repeated fractional crystallisation and re-solution (backreaction) of lake mineral precipitates. The construction of a railway causeway has restricted circulation, nearly isolating the northern from the southern part of the lake, which receives over 95% of the inflow. Given that Great Salt Lake waters are dominated by Na and Cl, this has led to halite precipitation in the north (Figures 2a, 3a; Gwynn, 2002). Widespread halite precipitation also occurred before 1959, especially in the southern area of the lake, associated with the most severe droughts (Jones et al., 2009; Spencer et al., 1985a). Spencer et al. (1985a) also described the presence of a sublacustrine ridge, which probably separated the lake into two basins at very low lake stands in the Quaternary. Fluctuating conditions emphasise brine differentiation, mixing, and fractional precipitation of salts as significant factors in solute evolution, especially as sinks for CaCO3, Mg, and K in the lake waters and sediments. The evolution of these brine/rock system depends on the concentration gradient and types of suspended and bottom clays, especially in relatively shallow systems.


Brine evolution across the Ogden pans

Figure 3a plots the known hydrochemistry of the inflow waters to the Great Salt Lake and their subsequent concentration. Evolving lake waters are always Na-Cl dominant, with sulphate in excess of magnesium in excess of potassium, throughout. Any post-halite evaporite minerals from this set of chemical proportions will contain post-halite potash bittern salts with elevated proportions of sulphate and magnesium and so will likely produce SOP rather than MOP associations. Contrast these hydrochemical proportions with the inflow and evolution chemistry in the pore brines of the Bonneville salt flat (Figure 3b) the Dead Sea and normal marine waters. Across all examples, sodium and chlorine are dominant and so halite will be the predominant salt deposited after aragonite and gypsum (Figure 4). Specifically, there are changes in sulphate levels with solar concentration (Figure 3b). In brines recovered from feeder wells in the Bonneville saltflat, unlike the nearby bajada well waters, the Bonneville salt flat brines show potassium in excess of sulphate and magnesium. In such a hydrochemical system, sylvite, as well as carnallite, are likely potassium bitterns in post-halite pans. The Wendover brine pans on the Bonneville saltflat produce MOP, not SOP, along with a MgCl2 brine, and have done so for more than 50 years (Bingham, 1980; Warren, 2016).


The mineral series in the Ogden pans

Figure 5 illustrates a laboratory-based construction of the idealised evolution of a Great Salt Lake feed brine as it passes through the various concentration pans. Figure 5 is a portion of the theoretical 25°C sulphate-potassium-magnesium phase diagram for the Great Salt Lake brine system and shows precipitates that are in equilibrium with brine at a particular concentration. Figures 4 and 5 represent typical brine concentration paths at summertime temperatures (Butts, 2002). Importantly, these figures do not describe the entire brine concentration story and local variations; mineralogical complexities in the predicted brine stream are related to thermal stratification, retention times and pond leakage. Effects on the chemistry of the brine due to the specific day-by-day and season-by-season variations of concentration and temperature, which arise in any solar ponding operation, require onsite monitoring and rectification. Such ongoing monitoring is of fundamental import when a pilot plant is constructed to test the reality of a future brine plant and its likely products.

 

Figure 6 illustrates the idealised phase evolution of pan brines at Ogden in terms of a K2SO4 phase diagram (no NaCl or KCl co-precipitates are shown; Felton et al., 2010). Great Salt Lake brine is pumped into the first set of solar ponds where evaporation initially proceeds along the line shown as Evap 1 until halite reaches saturation and is precipitated. Liquors discharged from the halite ponds are transferred to the potash precipitation ponds where solar evaporation continues as line Evap 2 on the phase diagram and potassium begins to reach saturation after about 75% of the water is removed. Potassium, sodium levels rise with further evaporation and schoenite precipitates in the schoenite crystalliser. After some schoenite precipitation occurs, the liquor continues to evaporate along the Evap 3 line to the point that schoenite, sylvite, and additional halite precipitate. Evaporation continues as shown by line Evap 3 to the point that kainite, sylvite and halite become saturated and precipitate. From this plot, the importance of the relative levels of extraction/precipitation of sulphate double salts versus chloride double salts is evident, as the evaporation plot point moves right with increasing chloride concentrations. That is, plot point follows the arrows from left to right as concentration of chloride (dominant ion in all pans) increases and moves the plot position right.


Production of SOP in the Great Salt Lake

To recover sulphate of potash commercially from pan bitterns fed from the waters of Great Salt Lake, the double salts kainite and schoenite are first precipitated and recovered in post-halite solar ponds (Figures 6, 7). The first salt to saturate and crystallise in the concentrator pans is halite. This is successively followed by epsomite, schoenite, kainite, carnallite, and finally bischofite. To produce a desirable SOP product requires ongoing in-pan monitoring and an on-site industrial plant whereby kainite is converted to schoenite. The complete salt evolution and processing plant outcome in the Ogden facility is multiproduct and can produce halite, salt cake and sulphate of potash and a MgCl2 brine product. Historically, sodium sulphate was recovered from the Great Salt Lake brines as a byproduct of the halite and potash production process, but ongoing low prices mean Na2SO4 has not been economically harvested for the last decade or so.

The complete production and processing procedure is as follows (Figure 7; Butts, 2002, 2007; Felton et al., 2010): 1) Brine is pumped from the Great Salt Lake into solar evaporation ponds where sodium chloride precipitates in the summer. 2) When winter weather cools the residual (post-halite) brine in the pans to -1 to -4°C, sodium sulphate crystals precipitate as mirabilite in a relatively pure state. Mirabilite crystals can be picked up by large earth-moving machinery and stored outdoors each winter until further processing takes place. 3) The harvested mirabilite can be added to hot water, and anhydrous sodium sulphate precipitated by the addition of sodium chloride to the heated mix to reduce sodium sulphate solubility through the common ion effect. The final salt cake product is 99.5% pure Na2SO4. 4) To produce SOP, Great Salt Lake brines are allowed to evaporate in a set of halite ponds, until approaching saturation with potassium salts. The residual brine is then transferred to a mixing pond, where it mixes with a second brine (from higher up the evaporation series, that contains a higher molar ratio of magnesium to potassium. 5) This adjusted brine is then allowed to evaporate to precipitate sodium chloride once more, until it is again saturated with respect to potassium salts. 6) The saturated brine is then transferred to another pond, is further evaporated and precipitates kainite (Figures 5, 6). Kainite precipitation continues until carnallite begins to form, at which time the brine is moved to another pond and is allowed to evaporate further to precipitate carnallite. 6) Some of the kainite-depleted brine is recycled to the downstream mixing pond to maintain the required molar ratio of magnesium to calcium in this earlier mixing pond (step 4). 7) Once carnallite has precipitated, the residual brine is transferred to deep storage and subjected to winter cooling to precipitate additional carnallite as it is a prograde salt. 8) Cryogenically precipitated carnallite can be processed to precipitate additional kainite by mixing it with a kainite-saturated brine. 9) MgCl2-rich end-brines in the post-carnallite bittern pans are then further processed to produce either MgCl2 flakes or a 32% MgCl2 brine. These end-bitterns are then used as a feedstock to make magnesium metal, bischofite flakes, dust suppressants, freeze preventers, fertiliser sprays, and used to refresh flush in ion exchange resins.

Some complexities in the observed mineral precipitation series in the Ogden Pans

Under natural solar pond conditions in the Ogden Pans, the brine temperature fluctuates with the air temperature across day-night and seasonal temperature cycles, and there is a lag time for temperature response in waters any brine pan, especially if the pan is heliothermic. Atmosphere-driven fluctuations in temperature results in changes in ion saturations, which can drive selective precipitation or dissolution of salts in the brine body. Air temperature in the Ogden pans may be 35°C during the day and 15°C at night. Brine at point A in figure 5 may favour the formation of kainite during the daytime and schoenite at night. The result of the diurnal temperature oscillation is a mixture of both salts in a single pond from the same brine. In terms of extracted product, this complicates ore processing as a single pan will contain both minerals, produced at the same curing stage, at the same time, yet one double salt entrains KCl, the other K2SO4, so additional processing is necessary to purify the product stream (Butts, 2002).

The sulphate ion in the pan waters is particularity temperature sensitive, and salts containing it in GSL pans tend to precipitate at cooler temperatures. Surficial cooling during the summer nights can cause prograde salts to precipitate, but the next day's heat generally provides sufficient activation energy to cause total dissolution of those salts precipitated just a few hours before (Butts, 2002). It is not unusual to find a 0.5 cm layer of hexahydrite (MgSO4.6H2O) at the bottom of a solar pond in the morning, but redissolved by late afternoon.

Under controlled laboratory conditions, brine collected from the hypersaline north arm of the Great Salt Lake will not crystallise mirabilite  until the brine temperature reaches 2°C or lower. Yet, in the anthropogenic solar ponds, mirabilite has been observed to crystallise at brine temperatures above 7°C. During the winter, as the surface temperature of the GSL pan brine at night becomes very cold (2°C or lower), especially on clear nights, and mirabilite rafts will form on and just below the brine surface and subsequently sink into the somewhat warmer brine at the floor of the pond. Because there is insufficient activation energy in this brine to completely redissolve the mirabilite, it remains on the pan floor, until warmer day/night temperatures are attained. However, it is also possible for salts precipitated by cooling to be later covered by salts precipitated by evaporation, which effectively prevents dissolution of those more temperature-sensitive salts that would otherwise redissolve (Butts, 2002).

There are also longer terms seasonal influences on mineralogy. Some salts deposited in June, July, and August (summer) will convert to other salts, with a possible total change in chemistry, when they are exposed to colder winter temperatures and rainfall. Kainite, for example, may convert to sylvite and epsomite and become a hardened mass on the pond floor; or if it is in contact with a sulphate-rich brine, it can convert to schoenite. Conversely, mirabilite will precipitate in the winter but redissolve during the hot summer months.

The depth of a solar pond also controls the size of the crystals produced. For example, if halite (NaCl) is precipitated in a GSL pond that is either less than 8 cm or more than 30cm deep, it will have a smaller crystal size than when precipitated in a pond between 8 and 30 cm deep. Smaller crystals of halite are undesirable in a de-icing product since a premium price is paid for larger crystals.

In terms of residence time, some salts require more time than others to crystallise in a pan. Brine that is not given sufficient time for crystallisation before it is moved into another pond, which contains brine at a different concentration, will produce a different suite of salts. For example, if a brine supersaturated in ions that will produce kainite, epsomite, and halite (reaction I), is transferred to another pond, the resulting brine mixture can favour carnallite (reaction 2), while kainite salts are eliminated.

Reaction 1: 9.75H2O + Na+ + 2Cl- + 2Mg2+ + K+ + 2SO42+ —> MgSO4.KCl +2.75H2O + MgSO4.7H2O + NaCl

Reaction 2: 12H2O + Na+ + 4Cl- + 2Mg2+ + K+ + 2SO42+ —> MgCl2.6H2O +MgSO4.6H2O + NaCl

Reaction 1 retains more magnesium as MgCl2 in the brine; reaction 2 retains more sulphate. In reaction 2, it is also interesting to note the effect of waters-of-hydration on crystallization; forcing out salts with high waters of crystallization results in higher rates of crystallization. The hydrated salts remove waters from the brine and further concentrate the brine in much the same way as does evaporation.

Pond leakage and brine capture (entrainment) in and below the pan floor are additional influences on mineralogy, regardless of brine depth or ponding area. As mentioned earlier, to precipitate bischofite and allow for MgCl2 manufacture, around ninety-eight percent of the water from present North Arm brine feed must evaporate. If pond leakage causes the level of the ponding area to drop too quickly, it becomes near impossible to reach saturation for bischofite (due to brine reflux). Control of pond leakage in the planning and construction phases is essential to assure that the precipitated salts contain the optimal quantity of the desired minerals for successful pond operation.

The opposite of leakage is brine retention in a precipitated layer; it can also alter brine chemistry and recovery economics. Brine entrained (or trapped) in the voids between salt crystals in the pond floor is effectively removed from salt production and so affects the chemistry of salts that will be precipitated as concentration proceeds and can also drive unwanted backreactions. The time required to evaporate nearly ninety percent of the water from the present north arm Great Salt Lake brine in the Ogden solar pond complex, under natural steady state conditions, is approximately eighteen months.

Summary of SOP production procedures in Great Salt Lake

Sulphate of potash cannot be obtained from the waters of the Great Salt Lake by simple solar evaporation (Behrens, 2002). As the lake water is evaporated, first halite precipitates in a relatively pure form and is harvested. By the time evaporative concentration has proceeded to the point that saturation in a potash-entraining salt occurs, most of the NaCl has precipitated. It does, however, continue to precipitate and becomes the primary contaminant in the potassium-bearing salt beds in the higher-end pans.

Brine phase chemistry from the point of potassium saturation in the evaporation series is complicated, and an array of potassium double salts are possible, depending on brine concentration, temperature and other factors. Among the variety of potash minerals precipitated in the potash harvester pans, the majority are double salts that contain atoms of both potassium and magnesium in the same molecule, They are dominated by kainite, schoenite, and carnallite. All are highly hydrated; that is, they contain high levels of water of crystallisation that must be removed during processing. SOP purification also involves removal of the considerable quantities of sodium chloride that are co-precipitated, after this the salts must be chemically converted into potassium sulphate.

Controlling the exact mineralogy of the precipitated salts and their composition mixtures is not possible in the pans, which are subject to the vagaries of climate and associated temperature variations. Many of the complex double salts precipitating in the pans are stable only under fixed physiochemical conditions, so that transitions of composition may take place in the ponds and even in the stockpile and early processing plant steps.

While weathering, draining, temperature and other factors can be controlled to a degree, it is essential that the Great Salt Lake plant be able to handle and effectively accommodate a widely variable feed mix (Behrens 2002). To do this, the plant operator has developed a basic process comprising a counter-current leach procedure for converting the potassium-bearing minerals through known mineral transition stages to a final potassium sulfate product (Figure 7). This set of processing steps is sensitive to sodium chloride content, so a supplemental flotation circuit is used to handle those harvested salts high in halite. It aims to remove the halite (in solution) and upgrade the feed stream to the point where it can be handled by the basic plant process.

Solids harvested from the potash ponds with elevated halite levels are treated with anionic flotation to remove remaining halite (Felton et al., 2010). To convert kainite into schoenite, it is necessary to mix the upgraded flotation product with a prepared brine. The conversion of schoenite to SOP at the Great Salt Lake plant requires that new MOP is added, over the amount produced from the lake brines. This additional MOP is purchased from the open market. The schoenite solids are mixed with potash in a draft tube baffle reactor to produce SOP and byproduct magnesium chloride.

The potassium sulfate processing stream defining the basic treatment process in the Great Salt Lake plant is summarised as Figure 7, whereby once obtaining the appropriate chemistry the SOP product is ultimately filtered, dried, sized and stored. Final SOP output may then be compacted, graded, and provided with additives as desired, then distributed in bulk or bagged, by rail or truck.


Lop Nur, Tarim Basin, China (SOP operation)

Sulphate of potash (SOP) via brine processing (solution mining) of lake sediments and subsequent solar concentration of brines is currently underway in the fault-bound Luobei Hollow region of the Lop Nur playa, in the southeastern part of Xinjiang Province, Western China (Liu et al., 2006; Sun et al., 2018). The recoverable sulphate of potash resource is estimated to be 36 million tonnes from lake brine (Dong et al., 2012). Lop Nur lies in the eastern part of the Taklimakan Desert (Figure 8a), China’s largest and driest desert, and is in the drainage sump of the basin, some 780 meters above sea level in a BSk climate belt. The Lop Nur depression first formed in the early Quaternary, due to the extensional collapse of the eastern Tarim Platform and is surrounded and typically in fault contact with the Kuruktagh (to the north), Bei Shan (to east) and Altun (to the south) mountains (Figure 8b).

The resulting Lop Nur (Lop Nor) sump is a large groundwater discharge playa that is the terminal point of China’s largest endorheic drainage system, the Tarim Basin, which occupies an area of more than 530,000 km2 (Ma et al., 2010). The Lop Nur sump is the hydrographic base level to local and regional groundwater and surface water flow systems, and thus collectively captures all river and subsurface flow originating in the surrounding mountainous regions. The area has been subject to ongoing Quaternary climate and water supply oscillations, which over the last few hundred years has driven concentric strandzone contractions on the playa surface, to form what is sometimes called the “Great Ear Lake" of the Lop Nur sump (Liu et al., 2016a).

Longer term widespread climate oscillations (thousands of years) drove precipitation of saline glauberite-polyhalite deposits, alternating with more humid lacustrine mudstones especially in fault defined grabens with the sump. For example, Liu et al. (2016b) conducted high-resolution multi-proxy analyses using materials from a well-dated pit section (YKD0301) in the centre of Lop Nur and south of the Luobei depression. They showed that Lop Nur experienced a progression through a brackish lake, saline lake, slightly brackish lake, saline lake, brackish lake, and playa in response to climatic changes over the past 9,000 years.

Presently, the Lop Nur playa lacks perennial long-term surface inflow and so is characterised by desiccated saline mudflats and polygonal salt crusts. The upward capillary flux from the shallow groundwater helps to maintain a high rate of evaporation in the depression and drives the formation of a metre-thick ephemeral halite crust that covers much of the depression (Liu et al., 2016a).

Historically, before construction of extensive irrigation systems in the upstream portion of the various riverine feeds to the depression and the diversion of water into the Tarim-Kongqi-Qargan canal, brackish floodwaters periodically accumulated in the Lop Nur depression. After the diversion of inflows, terminal desiccation led to the formation of the concentric shrinkage shorelines, that today outline the “Great Ear Lake” region of the Tarim Basin (Figure 8b; Huntington, 1907; Chao et al., 2009; Liu et al., 2016a).

The current climate is cool and extremely arid (Koeppen BSk); average annual rainfall is less than 20 mm and the average potential evaporation rates ≈3500 mm/yr (Ma et al., 2008, 2010). The mean annual air temperature is 11.6°C; higher temperatures occur during July (>40°C), and the lower temperatures occur during January (<20°C). Primary wind direction is northeast. The Lop Nor Basin experiences severe and frequent sandstorms; the region is well known for its wind-eroded features, including many layered yardangs along the northern, western and eastern margins of the Lop Nur salt plain (Lin et al., 2018).


Salinity and chemical composition of modern groundwater brine varies little in the ‘‘Great Ear” area and appears not to have changed significantly over the last decade (Ma et al., 2010). Dominant river inflows to the Lop Nor Basin are Na-Mg-Ca-SO4-Cl-HCO3 waters (Figure 9). In contrast, the sump region is characterised by highly concentrated groundwater brines (≈350 mg/l) that are rich in Na and Cl, poor in Ca and HCO3+CO3, and contain considerable amounts of Mg, SO4 and K, with pH ranging from 6.6 to 7.2 (Figure 9). When concentrated, the Luobei/Lop Nur pore brines is saturated with respect to halite, glauberite, thenardite, polyhalite and bloedite (Ma et al., 2010; Sun et al., 2018).

Groundwater brines, pooled in the northern sub-depression, mostly in the Luobei depression, are pumped into a series of pans to the immediate south, where sulphate of potash is produced via a set of solar concentrator pans. Brines in the Luobei depression and adjacent Xingqing and Tenglong platforms are similar in chemistry and salinity to the Great Ear Lake area but with a concentrated saline reserve due to the presence of a series of buried glauberite-rich beds (Figure 9; Hu and Wang, 2001; Ma et al., 2010; Sun et al., 2018).

K-rich mother brines in the Luobei hollow also contain significant MgSO4 levels and fill open phreatic pores in a widespread subsurface glauberite bed, with a potassium content of 1.4% (Liu et al., 2008; Sun et al., 2018). Feed brines are pumped from these evaporitic sediment hosts in the Luobei sump into a large field of concentrator pans to ultimately produce sulphate of potash (Figure 8a).

Brine chemical models, using current inflow water and groundwater brine chemistries and assuming open-system hydrology, show good agreement between theoretically predicted and observed minerals in upper parts of the Lop Nor Basin succession (Ma et al., 2010). However, such shallow sediment modelling does not explain the massive amounts of glauberite (Na2SO4.CaSO4) and polyhalite (K2SO4MgSO4.2CaSO4.2H2O) recovered in a 230 m deep core (ZK1200B well) from the Lop Nor Basin (Figure 9a).


Hydrochemical simulations assuming a closed system at depth and allowing brine reactions with previously formed minerals imply that widespread glauberite in the basin formed via back reactions between brine, gypsum and anhydrite and that polyhalite formed via a diagenetic reaction between brine and glauberite. Diagenetic textures related to recrystallisation and secondary replacement are seen in the ZK1200B core; they include gypsum-cored glauberite crystals and gypsum replacing glauberite. Such textures indicate significant mineral-brine interaction and backreaction during crystallisation of glauberite and polyhalite (Liu et al., 2008). Much of the glauberite dissolves to create characteristic mouldic porosity throughout the glauberite reservoir intervals (Figure 10, 11b)


Mineral assemblages predicted from the evaporation of Tarim river water match closely with natural assemblages and abundances and, in combination with a model that allows widespread backreactions, can explain the extensive glauberite deposits in the Lop Nor basin (Ma et al., 2008, 2010). It seems that the Tarim river inflows, not fault-controlled upwelling hydrothermal brines, were the dominant ion source throughout the lake history. The layered distribution of minerals in the more deeply cored sediments documents the evolving history of inflow water response to wet and dry periods in the Lop Nor basin. The occurrence of abundant glauberite and gypsum below 40 m depth, and the absence of halite, polyhalite and bloedite in the same sediment suggests that the brine underwent incomplete concentration in the wetter periods 10b).

In contrast, the increasing abundance of halite, polyhalite and bloedite in the top 40 m of core from the ZK1200B well indicate relatively dry periods (Figure 10a), where halite precipitated at lower evaporative concentrations (log Concentration factor = 3.15), while polyhalite and bloedite precipitated at higher evaporative concentrations (log = 3.31 and 3.48 respectively). Following deposition of the more saline minerals, the lake system once again became more humid in the later Holocene, until the anthropogenically-induced changes in the hydrology over the last few decades, driven by upstream water damming and extraction for agriculture (Ma et al., 2008). These changes have returned the sump hydrology to the more saline character that it had earlier in the Pleistocene.

The Lop Nur potash recovery plant/factory and pan system, located adjacent to the LuoBei depression (Figures 8, 11a), utilises a brine-well source aquifer where the potash brine is reservoired in intercrystalline and vuggy porosity in a thick stacked series of porous glauberite beds/aquifers.

Currently, 200 boreholes have been drilled in the Lop Nor brine field area showing the Late-Middle Pleistocene to Late Pleistocene strata are distributed as massive, continuous, thick layers of glauberite with well-developed intercrystal and mouldic porosity, forming storage space for potassium-rich brine (Figure 11b; Sun et al., 2018). However, buried faults and different rates of creation of fault-bound accommodation space, means there are differences in the brine storage capacity among the three brinefield extraction areas; termed the Luobei depression, the Xingqing platform and the Tenglong platform areas (Figures 9a, 11a).

In total, there are seven glauberitic brine beds defined by drill holes in the Luobei depression, including a phreatic aquifer, W1L, and six artesian aquifers, W2L, W3L, W4L, W5L, W6L, and W7 (Figure 10b; Sun et al., 2018). At present, only W1L, W2L, W3L, and W4L glauberite seams are used as brine sources. There are two artesian brine aquifers, W2X and W3X, exposed by drill holes in the Xinqing platform and there are three beds in the Tenglong extraction area, including a phreatic aquifer, W1T, and two artesian aquifers, W2T and W3T (Figure 10b).

W1L is a phreatic aquifer with layered distribution across the whole Luobei depression, with an average thickness of 17.54 m, water table depths of 1.7 to 2.3 m, porosities of 6.98% to 38.45%, and specific yields of 4.57% to 25.89%. Water yield is the highest in the central and northeast of the depression, with unit brine overflows of more than 5000 cubic meters per day per meter of water table depth (m3/dm). In the rest of the aquifer, the unit brine overflows range from 1000 to 5000 m3/dm (Sun et al., 2018). The W2L artesian aquifer is confined, nearly horizontal with a stratified distribution, and has an average thickness of 10.18 m, unit brine overflows of 10 to 100 m3/dm, water table depths of 20 to 40 m, porosities of 4.34% to 37.8%, and specific yields of 1.08% to 21.04%. The W3L artesian aquifer is confined, with stratified distribution and an average thickness of 8.50 m, unit brine overflows of 10 to 100 m3/dm, water table depths of 40 to 70 m, porosities of 2.85% to 19.97%, and specific yields of 1.10% to 13.37%. The W3L aquifer is also confined with stratified distribution, with an average thickness of 7.28 m, unit brine overflows of 10 to 100 m3/dm, water table depths of 70 to 100 m, porosities of 5.22% to 24.72%, and specific yields of 1.03% to 9.91%. The lithologies of the four brine storage layers are dominated by glauberite, and occasional lacustrine sedimentary clastic rocks, such as gypsum (Figure 10a).

The Xinqing platform consists of two confined potassium-bearing brine aquifers (Figure 10b). Confined brines have layered or stratified distributions. The average thicknesses of the aquifers are 4.38 to 7.52 m. Due to the F1 fault, there is no phreatic aquifer in the Xinqing platform, but this does not affect the continuity of the brine storage layer between the extraction areas. The W2X aquifer is confined, stratified, and distributed in the eastern part of this ore district with a north-south length of 77.78 km, east-west width of 16.82 km, and total area of 1100 km2. Unit brine overflows are 2.25 to 541.51 m3/dm, water table depths are 10 to 20 m, porosities are 3.89% to 40.69%, and specific yields are 2.01% to 21.15%. The W3X aquifer is also confined and stratified, with a north-south length of 76.10 km, east-west width of 18.81 km, and total area of 1444 km2. Unit brine overflows are 1.67 to 293.99 m3/d m, water table depths are 11.3 to 38 m, porosities are 4.16% to 26.43%, and specific yields are 2.11% to 14.19%23.

The Tenglong platform consists of a phreatic aquifer and two confined aquifers. W1T is a phreatic, stratified aquifer and is the main ore body, and is bound by the F3 fault (Figure 10b). It is distributed across the northern part of the Tenglong extraction area, with a north-south length of about 33 km, east-west width of about 20 km, and total area of 610 km2. Water table depths are 3.26 to 4.6 m, porosities are 2.03% to 38.81%, and specific yields are 22.48% to 1.22%. On the other side of the F3 fault, in the southern part of the mining area, is the W2T confined aquifer (Figure 10b). Water table depths are 16.91 to 22 m, porosities are 3.58% to 37.64%, and specific yields are 1.35% to 18.69%. W3T is also a confined aquifer, with a stratified orebody distributed in the southern part of the mining area, with a north-south length of about 29 km, east-west width of about 21 km, and total area of 546 km2. Water table depths are 17.13 to 47 m, porosities are 2.69% to 38.71%, and specific yields are 1.26% to 17.64%.

Lop Nur is an unusual potash source

The glauberite-hosted brinefield in the Luobei depression and the adjacent platforms makes the Lop Nur SOP system unique in that it is the world's first large-scale example of brine commercialisation for potash recovery in a Quaternary continental playa aquifer system with a non-MOP brinefield target. Elsewhere, such as in the Dead Sea and the Qarhan sump, Salar de Atacama and the Bonneville salt flats, the brines derived from Quaternary lacustrine beds and water bodies are concentrated via solar evaporation in semi-arid desert scenarios. Potash plants utilising these Quaternary evaporite-hosted lacustrine brine systems do not target potassium sulphate, but process either carnallitite or sylvinite into a commercial MOP product

 Glauberite is found in a range of other continental Quaternary evaporite deposits around the world but, as yet,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       outside of Lop Nur is not economically exploited to produce sulphate of potash. For example, glauberite is a significant component in Quaternary cryogenic beds in Karabogazgol on the eastern shore of the Caspian Sea, in Quaternary evaporite beds in Laguna del Rey in Mexico, in saline lacustrine beds in the Miocene of Spain and Turkey, and in pedogenic beds in hyperarid nitrate-rich soils of the Atacama Desert of South America (Warren, 2016; Chapter 12).

In most cases, the deposits are commercially exploited as a source of sodium sulphate (salt cake). In a saline Quaternary lake in Canada, SOP is produced by processing saline lake waters. This takes place in Quill Lake, where small volumes of SOP are produced via mixing a sylvite feed (trucked into the site) with a cryogenic NaSO4 lake brine.

The Lop Nur deposit is mined by the SDIC Xinjiang Luobupo Hoevellite Co. Ltd, and the main product is potassium sulfate, with a current annual production capacity of 1.3 million tons. Pan construction began in 2000, and the plant moved in full -cale operation in 2004 when it produced ≈50,000 tons. The parent company, State Development and Investment Corporation (SDIC), is China’s largest state-owned investment holding company. The company estimates a potash reserve ≈ 12.2 billion tons in the sump. This makes Lop Nur deposit the largest SOP facility in the world, and it is now a significant supplier of high premium fertiliser to the Chinese domestic market.

Implications

A study of a few of the Quaternary pans worldwide manufacturing economic levels of potash via solar evaporation shows tha,t independent of whether SOP or MOP salts are the main product, all retain abundant evidence that salt precipitates continue to evolve as the temperature and the encasing brine chemistry change. As we shall see in many ancient examples discussed in the next article, ongoing postdepositional mineralogical alteration dominates the textural and mineralogical story in most ancient potash deposits.

As we saw in the previous article, which focused on MOP in solar concentrator plants with brine feeds from Quaternary saline lakes, SOP production from brine feeds in Quaternary saline lakes is also related strongly to cooler desert climates (Figure 12). The Koeppen climate at Lop Nur is cool arid desert (BWk), while the Great Salt Lake straddles cool arid steppe desert and a temperate climate zone, with hot dry summer zones (BSk and Csa)


Outside of these two examples, there are a number of other Quaternary potash mineral occurrences with the potential for SOP production, if a suitable brine processing stream can be devised (Warren, 2010, 2016). These sites include intermontane depressions in the high Andes in what is a high altitude polar tundra setting (Koeppen ET), none of which are commercial (Figure 12b).

Similarly, there a number of non-commercial potash (SOP) mineral and brine occurrences in various hot arid desert regions in Australia, northern Africa and the Middle East (Koeppen BWh). Today, SOP in Salar de Atacama is currently produced as a byproduct of lithium carbonate production, along with MOP, as discussed in the previous article in this series.

As for MOP, climatically, commercial potash brine SOP systems are hosted in Quaternary-age lacustrine sediments are located in cooler endorheic intermontane depressions (BWk, BSk). The association with somewhat cooler desert and less arid cool steppe climates underlines the need for greater volumes of brine to reside in the landscape in order to facilitate the production of significant volumes of potash bittern.

Put simply, in the case of both MOP and SOP production in Quaternary settings, hot arid continental deserts simply do not have enough flowable water to produce economic volumes of a chemically-suitable mother brine. That is, currently economic Quaternary MOP and SOP operations produce by pumping nonmarine pore or saline lake brines into a set of concentrator pans. Mother waters reside in hypersaline perennial lakes in steep-sided valleys or in pores in salt-entraining aquifers with dissolving salt compositions supplying  a suitable ionic proportions in the mother brine. In terms of annual volume of product sold into the world market, Quaternary brine systems supply less than 15% The remainder comes from the mining of a variety of ancient solid-state potash sources. In the third and final article in this series, we shall discuss how and why the chemistry and hydrogeology of these ancient potash sources is mostly marine-fed and somewhat different from the continental hydrologies addressed so far.

References

Behrens, P., 2002, Industrial processing of Great Salt lake Brines by Great Salt Lake Minerals and Chemical Corporation, in D. T. Gywnne, ed., Great Salt Lake: A scientific, historical and economic overview, Utah Geological and Mineral Survey, Bulletin 116, p. 223-228.

Bingham, C. P., 1980, Solar production of potash from brines of the Bonneville Salt Flats, in J. W. Gwynn, ed., Great Salt Lake; a scientific, history and economic overview. , v. 116, Bulletin Utah Geological and Mineral Survey, p. 229-242.

Butts, D., 2002, Chemistry of Great Salt Lake Brines in Solar Ponds, in D. T. Gywnne, ed., Great Salt Lake: A scientific, historical and economic overview, Utah Geological and Mineral Survey, Bulletin 116, p. 170-174.

Butts, D., 2007, Chemicals from Brines, Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., p. 784-803.

Chao, L., P. Zicheng, Y. Dong, L. Weiguo, Z. Zhaofeng, H. Jianfeng, and C. Chenlin, 2009, A lacustrine record from Lop Nur, Xinjiang, China: Implications for paleoclimate change during Late Pleistocene: Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, v. 34, p. 38-45.

Dong, Z., P. Lv, G. Qian, X. Xia, Y. Zhao, and G. Mu, 2012, Research progress in China's Lop Nur: Earth-Science Reviews, v. 111, p. 142-153.

Felton, D., J. Waters, R. Moritz, D., and T. A. Lane, 2010, Producing Sulfate of Potash from Polyhalite with Cost Estimates, Gustavson Associates, p. 19.

Hu, G., and N.-a. Wang, 2001, The sand wedge and mirabilite of the last ice age and their paleoclimatic significance in Hexi Corridor: Chinese Geographical Science, v. 11, p. 80-86.

Huntington, E., 1907, Lop-Nor. A Chinese Lake. Part 1. The Unexplored Salt Desert of Lop: Bulletin of the American Geographical Society, v. 39, p. 65-77.

Jones, B., D. Naftz, R. Spencer, and C. Oviatt, 2009, Geochemical Evolution of Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA: Aquatic Geochemistry, v. 15, p. 95-121.

Lin, Y., L. Xu, and G. Mu, 2018, Differential erosion and the formation of layered yardangs in the Loulan region (Lop Nur), eastern Tarim Basin: Aeolian Research, v. 30, p. 41-47.

Liu, C., W. Mili, J. Pengcheng, L. I. Shude, and C. Yongzhi, 2006, Features and Formation Mechanism of Faults and Potash-forming Effect in the Lop Nur Salt Lake, Xinjiang, China: Acta Geologica Sinica - English Edition, v. 80, p. 936-943.

Liu, C.-A., H. Gong, Y. Shao, Z. Yang, L. Liu, and Y. Geng, 2016a, Recognition of salt crust types by means of PolSAR to reflect the fluctuation processes of an ancient lake in Lop Nur: Remote Sensing of Environment, v. 175, p. 148-157.

Liu, C. L., M. L. Wang, P. C. Jiao, W. D. Fan, Y. Z. Chen, Z. C. Yang, and J. G. Wang, 2008, Sedimentary characteristics and origin of polyhalite in Lop Nur Salt Lake,Xinjiang: Mineral Deposits.

Liu, C. L., J. F. Zhang, P. C. Jiao, and S. Mischke, 2016b, The Holocene history of Lop Nur and its palaeoclimate implications: Quaternary Science Reviews, v. 148, p. 163-175.

Ma, C., F. Wang, Q. Cao, X. Xia, S. Li, and X. Li, 2008, Climate and environment reconstruction during the Medieval Warm Period in Lop Nur of Xinjiang, China: Chinese Science Bulletin, v. 53, p. 3016-3027.

Ma, L., T. K. Lowenstein, B. Li, P. Jiang, C. Liu, J. Zhong, J. Sheng, H. Qiu, and H. Wu, 2010, Hydrochemical characteristics and brine evolution paths of Lop Nor Basin, Xinjiang Province, Western China: Applied Geochemistry, v. 25, p. 1770-1782.

Spencer, R. J., H. P. Eugster, and B. F. Jones, 1985b, Geochemistry of Great Salt Lake, Utah II: Pleistocene-Holocene evolution: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 49, p. 739-747.

Spencer, R. J., H. P. Eugster, B. F. Jones, and S. L. Rettig, 1985a, Geochemistry of Great Salt Lake, Utah I: Hydrochemistry since 1850: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 49, p. 727-737.

Sun, M.-g., and L.-c. Ma, 2018, Potassium-rich brine deposit in Lop Nor basin, Xinjiang, China: Scientific Reports, v. 8, p. 7676.

Warren, J. K., 2010, Evaporites through time: Tectonic, climatic and eustatic controls in marine and nonmarine deposits: Earth-Science Reviews, v. 98, p. 217-268.

Warren, J. K., 2016, Evaporites: A compendium (ISBN 978-3-319-13511-3): Berlin, Springer, 1854 p.

 

Danakil potash: K2SO4 across the Neogene: Implications for Danakhil potash, Part 4 of 4

John Warren - Tuesday, May 12, 2015

How to deal with K2SO4

In this the fourth blog focusing on Danakhil potash, we look at the potash geology of formerly mined Neogene deposits in Sicily and the Ukraine, then compare them and relevant processing techniques used to exploit their K2SO4 ore feeds. This information is then used to help guide a discussion of processing implications for potash extraction in the Danakhil, where kainite is the dominant widespread potash salt. As seen in the previous three blogs there are other potash mineral styles present in the Danakhil, which constitute more restricted ore fairways than the widespread bedded kainaite, these other potash styles (deep meteoiric -blog 2 of 4 and hydrothermal - blog 3 of 4), could be processed to extract MOP, but these other potash styles are also tied to high levels of MgCl2, which must be dealt with in the brine processing stream. The most effective development combination is to understand the three occurence styles , define appropriate specific brine processing strams and then combine the products in an single processing plant and then produce sulphate of potash (SOP), rather the Muriate of Potash (MOP), as SOP has a 30% price premium in current potash markets.

Kainite dominated the bedded potash ore feed in former mines in the Late Miocene (Messinian) sequence in Sicily and the Middle Miocene (Badenian) sequence in the Carpathian foredeep], Ukraine. Kainite also occurs in a number of potash deposits in the Permian of Germany and Russia. In Germany a combination of mined sylvite and kieserite is used to manufacture sulphate of potash (SOP). Interestingly, Neogene and the Permian are times when world ocean waters were enriched in MgSO4 (Lowenstein et al., 2001, 2003). In contrast, much of the Phanerozoic was typified by an ocean where MgSO4 levels were less. It is from such marine brine feeds that most of the world’s larger Phaneorzoic (SOP) potash ore deposits were precipitated (Warren, 2015). SOP is also produced from Quaternary Lake brines in China and Canada (see cryogenic salt blog; 24 Feb. 2015).

SOP in Messinian evaporites, Sicily

A number of potash mines on the island extracted kainitite from the late Miocene Solofifera Series of Sicily (Figure 1). The last of these mines closed in the mid-1990s, but portions of some are maintained and are still accessible (eg Realmonte mine). The halite-hosted potash deposits are isolated ore bodies within two generally parallel troughs, 115 km long and 5- 10 km wide, within the Caltanissetta Basin (Figure 1). They are separated by a thrust-related high 11-25 km wide and capped by the limestones of the “Calcare di Base”. Kainite is the dominant potash mineral in the mined deposits. Across the basin, ore levels constitute six layers of variable thickness, with a grade of 10%-16% K2O (pure kainite contains 18.9% K20), with very little insoluble content (0.4%-2.0%).

At the time the potash was deposited there was considerable tectonic activity in the area (Roveri et al. 2008, Manzi et al., 2011). Host sediments were deposited in piggy-back basins some 5.5 Ma atop a series of regional thrusts, so the ore layers have dips in the mines ranging up to 60° (Figure 2). Little if any of the limestone associated with the deposits was converted to dolomite, nor was the thick Messinian gypsum (upper and lower units), encasing the halite /kainitite units, converted to anhydrite, it remains as gypsum with well preserved depositional textures. However, the elevated salinities, and perhaps temperatures, required for kainite precipitation means anhydrite micronodules, observed in some ore levels, may be primary or syndepositional. A lack of carnallite, along with isotopic data, indicates that when the deposits were formed by the evaporation of the seawater, salinities did not usually proceed far past the kainite crystallization point (in contrast to Ethiopia where carnallite salinities typify the later stages of kainitite deposition)..

 

The largest Sicilian ore body was at Pasquasia, to the west of Calanisseta, covering a 24 km2 area at depths of 300-800 m (Figure 1). There were five ore beds at Pasquasia, all with highly undulating synclinal and anticlinal forms. The Number 2 bed was the thickest, averaging perhaps a 30-m thickness of 10.5% to 13.5% K2O ore. The Pasquasia Mine was last operational from 1952 to 1992.

 

Ore geology remains somewhat more accessible at the former Realmonte mine, near the town of Agrigento. There, four main depositional units (A to D from base to top) typify the evaporite geology. As at Pasquasia, kainitite was the targeted ore within a Messinian evaporite section that has total thickness of 400-600 m. As defined by Decima and Wezel, 1971, 1973; Decima, 1988, Lugli, 1999, the Realmonte mine section is made up of 4 units (Figure 2a):

- Unit A (up to 50 m thick): composed of evenly laminated grey halite with white anhydrite nodules and laminae that pass upward to grey massive halite beds.

- Unit B (total thickness ≈100 m): this potash entraining interval is dominated by massive even layers of grey halite, interbedded with light grey thin kainite laminae and minor grey centimetre-scale polyhalite spherules and laminae, along with anhydrite laminae; the upper part of the unit contains at least six light grey kainite layers up to 18 m-thick that were the targeted ore sequence. Unlike the Danakil, carnallite does not typify the upper part of this marine potash section. The targeted beds are in the low-angle dip portion of a thrust-folded remnant in a structural basin (Figures 2b, 3).

- Unit C (70-80 m thick): is made up of white halite layers 10-20 cm thick, separated by irregular dark grey mud laminae and minor light grey polyhalite and anhydrite laminae (Figure 3).

- Unit D (60 m thick): is composed of a grey anhydritic mudstone (15-20 m thick), passing up into an anhydrite laminite sequence, followed by grey halite millimetre to centimetre layers intercalated with white anhydrite laminae.


According to Lugli, 1999, units A and B are made up of cumulates of well-sorted halite plate crystals, up to a few millimeters in size. Kainite typically forms discrete laminae and sutured crystal mosaic beds, ranging from a thickness of few mm to a maximum of 2 m, intercalated and embedded within unit B (Garcia-Veigas et al., 1995). It may also occur as small isometric crystals scattered within halite mosaics. Kainite textures are dominated by packed equant-granular mosaics, which show possible pressure-dissolution features at some grain boundaries. The associated halite layers are dominantly cumulates, which show no evidence of bottom overgrowth chevrons, implying evaporite precipitation was a “rain from heaven” pelagic style that took place in a stratified permanently subaqueous brine water body, possibly with a significant water depth to the bottom of the permanent lower water mass.

Only the uppermost part of potash bearing portion of unit B shows a progressive appearance of large halite rafts along with localized dissolution pits filled by mud, suggesting an upward shallowing of the basin at that time. In many parts of the Realmonte mine spectacular vertical fissures cut through the topmost part of unit B at the boundary with unit C, suggesting desiccation and subaerial exposure at this level (Lugli et al., 1999).

The overlying unit C is composed of cumulates of halite skeletal hoppers that evolve into halite chevrons illustrating bottom growth after foundering of the initial halite rafts. Halite layers in unit C show numerous dissolution pits filled by mud and irregular truncation of the upper crystal terminations, implying precipitation from a nonstratified, relatively shallow water body. Palaeo-temperatures of the brine that precipitated these halite crystals are highly variable from 22 to 32°C (Lugli and Lowenstein, 1997) and suggest a shallow hydrologically unstable body of water, unlike units A and B.

The bromine content of halite increases from the base of unit A to the horizons containing kainite (layer B) where it obtains values of up to 150 ppm. Upwards, the bromine content decreases once more to where at the top of Unit C it drops below 13 ppm, likely indicating a marked dilution of the mother brine. The dilution is likely a consequence of recycling (dissolution and reprecipitation) of previously deposited halite either by meteoric-continental waters (based on Br content; Decima 1978), or by seawater (based on the high sulphate concentration and significant potassium and magnesium content of fluid inclusions; Garcia-Veigas et al., 1995).

As in the Danakhil succession, evaporite precipitation at Realmonte began as halite-CaSO4 interlayered succession at the bottom of a stratified perennial water body, which shallowed and increased in concentration until reaching potash kainite saturation. In Sicily, this was followed by a period of exposure and desiccation indicated by the presence of giant megapolygonal structures. Finally, seawater flooded the salt pan again, dissolving and truncating part of the previous halite layers, which was then redeposited under shallow-water conditions at the bottom of a nonstratified (holomitic) water body (Lugli et al., 1997, 1999).

Unlike Ethiopia, the Neogene kainite deposits of Sicily were deposited in a thrust “piggy-back” basin setting and not in a rift sump (Figure 2b). Mineralogically similar, very thick, rift-related, now halokinetic, halite deposits of Midddle Miocene age occur under the Red Sea’s coastal plain between Jizan, Saudi Arabia (where they outcrop) to Safaga, Egypt, with limited potash is found in some Red Sea locations at depths suitable for solution mining (Notholt 1983; Garrett, 1995). Potash-enriched marine end-liquor brines characterise Red Sea geothermal springs, implying a more sizeable potash mass may be (or once have been) present in this region. Hite and Wassef (1983) argue gamma ray peaks in two drill hole logs in this area suggest the presence of sylvite, carnallite and possibly langbeinite at depth.

K2SO4 salts in Miocene of Ukraine

Miocene salt deposits occur in the western Ukraine within two structural terranes: 1) Carpathian Foredeep (rock and potash salt) and (II) Transcarpathian trough (rock salt) (Figure 4a). These salt-bearing deposits differ in the thickness and lithology depending on the regional tectonic location (Czapowski et al., 2009). In the Ukrainian part of Carpathian Foredeep, three main tectonic zones were distinguished (Figure 4b): (I) outer zone (Bilche-Volytsya Unit), in which the Miocene molasse deposits overlie discordantly the Mesozoic platform basement at the depth of 10-200 m, and in the foredeep they subsided under the overthrust of the Sambir zone and are at depths of 1.2-2.2 km (Bukowski and Czapowski, 2009); Hryniv et al., 2007); (II) central zone (Sambir Unit), in which the Miocene deposits were overthrust some 8-12 km onto the external part of the Foredeep deposits of the external zone occur at depths of 1.0-2.2 km; (III) internal zone (Boryslav-Pokuttya Unit), where Miocene deposits were overthrust atop the Sambir Nappe zone across a distance of some 25 km (Hryniv et al., 2007).


The Carpathian Foredeep formed during the Early Miocene, located north of emerging the Outer (Flysch) Carpathians. This basin was filled with Miocene siliciclastic deposits (clays, claystones, sandstones and conglomerates) with a maximum thickness of 3 km in Poland and up to 5 km in Ukraine (Oszczypko, 2006). Two main evaporite bearing formations characterise the saline portions of the succession and were precipitated when the hydrographic connection to the Miocene ocean was severely reduced or lost (Figures 4, 5): A) Vorotyshcha Beds, dated as Late Eggenburgian and Ottnangian, some 1.1-2.3 km thick and composed of clays with sandstones, with exploitable rocksalt and potash salt interbeds. This suite is further subdivided into two subsuites: a) A lower unit, some 100-900 m thick with rock salt beds and, b) An upper unit, some 0.7-1.0 km thick, with significant potash beds, now deformed (Hryniv et al., 2007).The Stebnyk potash mine is located in this lower subset in the Boryslav-Pokuttya Nappe region, close to the Carpathian overthrust); B) Tyras Beds of Badenian age reach thicknesses of 300-800 m in the Sambir and Bilche-Volytysa units and are dominated by salt breccias and contain both rock and potash salts. Thicknesses in the Bilche-Volytsya Unit range from 20-70 m and are made up of a combination of claystones, sandstones, carbonates, sulphates and rock salts with little or no potash.


Hence, potash salts of the Carpathian Foredeep are related either to the Vorotyshcha Beds located in the Boryslav–Pokuttya zone, or to the Tyras Beds (Badenian) in the Sambir zone (Figure 5). These associations range across different ages, but have many similar features, such as large number of potash lenses in the section, mostly in folded-thrust setting, and owing to their likely Neogene-marine mother brine contain many sulphate salts, along with a high clay content. Accordingly, the main potash ore salts are kainite, langbeinite and kainite–langbeinite mixtures. Hryniv et al. (2007) note more than 20 salt minerals in the Miocene potash levels and in their weathering products. Bromine contents in halites of the Carpathian Foredeep for deposits without potash salts range from 10 to 100 ppm (on average 56 ppm); in halite from salt breccias with potash salts range from 30 to 230 ppm (average 120 ppm); and in halite from potash beds ranges from 70 to 300 ppm (average 170 ppm). In the ore minerals from the main potash deposits, bromine content ranges are: a) in kainite 800–2300 ppm; b) in sylvite 1410–2660 ppm; and c) in carnallite 1520–2450 ppm. This is consistent with kainite being a somewhat less saline precipitate than carnallite/sylvite (Figure 6).


The brines of Vorotyshcha and Tyras salt-forming basins (based on data from brine inclusions in an investigation of sedimentary halite, listed by Hyrniv et al. (2007), are consistent with mother brines of the Na–K–Mg–Cl–SO4 (MgSO4-rich) chemical type (consistent with a Neogene marine source). Inclusion analysis indicates the temperature of halite formation in the Miocene basin brines in Forecarpathian region was around 25°C. During the potash (Kainite) stages it is likely these solutions became perennially stratified and heliothermal so that the bottom brines could be heated to 40-60°C, more than double the temperature of the brine surface layer (see Warren, 2015 for a discussion of the physical chemistry and the various brine stratification styles). During later burial and catagenesis the temperatures preserved in recrystallised halites are as high as 70°C with a clear regional tectonic distribution (Hryniv et al. (2007).

Maximum potash salt production was achieved under Soviet supervision in the 1960s, when the Stebnyk and Kalush mines delivered 150 x 106 tonnes of K2O and the “New” Stebnyk salt-works some 250 x 106 tonnes as K2SO4 per year.


Stebnyk potash (Figure 7a)

The potash salt deposit in the Stebnyk ore field occurs within the Miocene (Eggenburgian) Vorotyshcha Beds (Figures 4, 5). Salt-bearing deposits in the Stebnyk area were traditionally attributed to two main rock complexes (Lower and Upper Vorotyshcha Beds) separated by terrigenous (sandstones and conglomerates) Zahirsk Beds (Petryczenko et al., 1994). More recent work indicates that the Zahirsk Beds belonged to a olistostrome horizon (a submarine slump, interrupting evaporite deposition) and there are no valid arguments for subdividing the Vorotyshcha Beds into two subunits (Hryniv et al., 2007).

There are multiple salt-bearing series in the Stebnyk deposit (Figure 4b) and their total thickness ranges up to 2,000 m in responses to intensive fold thickening and overthrusting of the Carpathians foredeep. Intervals with more fluid salt mineralogies were compressed and squeezed into the centers of synclinal folds, to form a number of elongate lens-shape ore bodies (Figure 4b). These bodies are often several hundreds meters wide and in mineable zones occur at the depth of 80-650 m, typically at 100-360 m.

The lower part of the Vorotyshcha Suite (Beds) in the Stebnyk Mine area is composed of a salt-bearing breccia, with sylvinite or carnallitite interclayers typically in its upper parts, as well as numerous blocks of folded marly clays (Bukowski and Czapowski, 2009). Above this is the potash-bearing ore series , some 10-125 m thick and, composed of beds of kainite, langbeinite and lagbeinite-kainite with local sylvinite and kieserite (Hryniv et al., 2007). The potash interval is overlain by a rock salt complex some 60 m thick (Koriń, 1994).

The Stebnyk plant is now abandoned and in disrepair. In 1983 there was a major environmental disaster (explosion) at a nearby chemical plant (in the ammonia manufacture section), which was supplied chemical feedstock by the mine. No lives were lost, but damage at the plant, tied to the explosion, released some 4.6 million cubic metres of thick brine from an earthen storage dam into the nearby Dniester River. At the time this river was probably the least environmentally damaged by industrial operations under Soviet administration. The spill disrupted water supplies to millions of people along the river, killed hundreds of tons of fish, destroyed river vegetation and deposited a million tons of mineral salts on the bottom of a 30-mile-long reservoir on the Dniester. Stebnik is located in the Ukrainian province of Lvov. Staff members at the United States Embassy at the time seized on the name to dub the incident ‘’Lvov Canal,’’ after the Love Canal contamination in the United States.

Kalush potash salt geology (Figure 7b)

Thickness of Miocene (Badenian) deposits near the Kalush Mine is around 1 km (Figures 4a). Two local salt units (beds) are distinguished within the Tyras Beds: the Kalush and Holyn suites, which constitute the nucleus of Miocene deposits of Sambir Unit (Figure 5). Beds have been overthrust and folded onto the Mesozoic and Middle to Upper Miocene molasse sediments of the outer (Bilche-Volytsya) tectonic unit (Figure 4b). The Kalush Beds are 50-170 m thick, mostly clays, with sandstone and mudstone intercalations,. In contrast the Holyn beds are more saline and dominated by clayey rock salts (30-60% of clay), salty clays and claystones (Koriń, 1994). Repeated interbeds and concentrations of potash salts up to several meters thick within the Holyn beds define a number of separate potash salt fields in the Kalush area (Figures 4b, 5). Such salt seams are dominated by several MgSO4-enriched mineralogies: kainite, langbeinite-kainite, langbeinite, sylvinite and less much uncommon carnallite and polyhalite. These polymineralogic sulphate ore mineral assemblages are co-associated with anhydrite, kieserite and various carbonates. The potash ore fields typically occur in tectonic troughs within larger synclines, usually at depths of 100-150 m, to a maximum of 800 m.

Conventional processing streams for manufacture of SOP and MOP

To date the main natural sulphate salts that have been successfully processed to manufacture sulphate of potash (SOP) are;

  • Kainite (KCl.MgSO4.3H2O) (as in Sicily - potash mines are no longer active)
  • Kieserite (MgSO4.H2O) (as in Zechstein, Germany - some potash mines active)
  • Langbeinite (K2SO4.2MgSO4) (as in Carlsbad, New Mexico - active potash mine)
  • Polymineralic sulphate ores (as in the Stebnyk and Kalush ores, Ukraine - these potash mines are no longer active)
  • All the processing approaches deal with a mixed sulphate salt or complex sulphate brine feed and involve conversion to form an intermediate doublesalt product, usually schoenite (or leonite at elevated temperatures) or glaserite. This intermediate is then water-leached to obtain SOP.

    For example, with a kainite feed, the process involves the following reactions:

    2KCl.MgSO4.3H2O --> K2SO4.MgSO4.6H2O + MgCl2

    followed by water-leaching of the schoenite intermediate

    K2SO4.MgSO4.6H2O --> K2SO4 + MgSO4 + 6H2O


    In Sicily in the 1960s and 70s, the Italian miners utilized such a solid kainitite ore feed, from conventional underground mining and leaching approaches. The various Italian mines were heavily government subsidized and in terms of a free-standing operation most were never truly profitable. The main kainitite processing technique used in Sicily, is similar in many ways to that used to create SOP from winter-precipitated cryogenic salt slurries in pans that were purpose-constructed in the North Arm area of in Great Salt Lake, Utah (Table 1; see Warren, 2015 for details on Great Salt Lake operations). The Italian extraction method required crushing and flotation to create a fine-sized kainite ore feed with less than 5% NaCl. This product was then leached at temperatures greater than 90°C with an epsomite brine and converted into a langbeinite slurry, a portion which was then reacted with a schoenite brine to precipitate potassium chloride and epsomite solids, which were then separated from each other and from the epsomite brine. A portion of the potassium chloride was then reacted with magnesium sulphate in the presence of a sulphate brine to create schoenite and a schoenite brine. This schoenite brine was recycled and the remaining potassium chloride reacted with the schoenite in the presence of water, to obtain potassium sulphate and a sulphate brine.

    The processing stream in the Ukraine was similar for the various Carpathian ore feeds, which “out-of-mine-face” typically contained around 9% potassium and 15% clay and so were a less pure input to the processing stream, compared to the typical mine face product in Sicily. Like Sicily, schoenite was the main intermediate salt. Ore was leached with a hot synthetic kainite solution in a dissolution chamber. The langbeinite, polyhalite and halite remained undissolved in the chamber. Salts and clay were then moved into a Dorr-Oliver settler where the clays were allowed to settle and were then moved to a washer and discarded. The remaining solution was crystallized at the proper cation and anion proportions to produce crystalline schoenite. To avoid precipitation of potassium chloride and sodium chloride, a saturated solution of potassium and magnesium sulfate was added to the Dorr-Oliver settler. The resulting slurry of schoenite was filtered and crystals were leached with water to produce K2SO4 crystals, which were centrifuged and recycled and a liquor of potassium and magnesium sulfates obtained. The liquid phase from the filter was recycled and added to the schoenite liquor from obtaoned by vacuum crystallization. Part of the schoenite liquor was evaporated to produce crystalline sodium sulfate, while the magnesium chloride liquid end product was discarded. The slurry from the evaporation unit was recycled as “synthetic kainite.” This process stream permitted the use of the relatively low quality Carpathian ore and produced several commercially valuable products including potassium sulfate, potassium-magnesium sulfate, potassium chloride, sodium sulfate and magnesium chloride liquors. Being a Soviet era production site, the economics of the processing was not necessarily the main consideration. Rather, it was the agricultural utility of the product that was paramount to the Soviet state.

    Can Danakhil potash be economically mined?

    For any potash deposit (MOP or SOP) there are three approaches that are used today to economically extract ore (Warren 2015): 1) Conventional underground mining. 2) Processing of lake brines 3) Solution mining and surface processing of brines. Historically, method 1 and 2 have been successfully conducted in the Danakhil Depression, although method 1) was terminated in the Dallol area by a mine flood.

    Conventional mining

    To achieve a successful conventional underground MOP potash mine any where in the world, ideally requires (Warren, 2015): 1) A low dipping, laterally continuous and consistently predictable quality ore target, not subject to substantial changes in bed dip or continuity. 2) An ore grade of 14% K2O or higher, and bed thickness of more than 1.2 m. 3) Around 8-m of impervious salt in the mine back or roof, although some potash mines, such as the Boulby mine in the UK are working with < 2 meters of salt in the back (but there the extraction is automated and the access roads approach the target ore zone from below). 4) An initial access shaft that is vertical and typically dug using ground freezing techniques to prevent unwanted water entry during excavation. 5) A typical ore depth in the range 500-1100 metres. Shallower mines are subject to unpredictable water entry/flooding and catastrophic roof collapse, as in the Cis-Urals region (see Solikamsk blog). Mines deeper than 1000-1100 metres are at the limit of conventional mining and the salt surround is subject to substantial creep and possible explosive pressure release outbursts (as in some potash mines in the former East Germany). 6) At-surface and in-mine conditions not subject to damage by earthquakes, water floods or volcanism.

    During the feasibilty phase of the Parsons Mining Project it became evident that the halite material overlying the Sylvinite Member was porous and that there was no adequate hydrologic protection layer above the Sylvinite Member. In my mind, this is further evidence of the hydrologic access needed to convert carnallite to sylvite along the bajada front (see previous blog). In any event the absence of a hydrologic protection layer above the Sylvinite Member means that conventional underground mining is not feasible for this type of potash. In addition, given the tectonic instability of the Danakhil Depression it is likely that no underground conventional mine is feasible in the hydrologically, seismically and hydrothermally active setting, which is the Danakhil depression, even if planning to exploit the deeper widespread kainitite beds (>350-450m)

    Some explorers in the Danakhil depression, especially on the Eritrean side are proposing to use surface or open-pit mining (quarrying) approaches to reach and extract/processing shallow ore salts. For this approach to be successful requires the shallow potash targets to be above regional groundwater level. Depths to the different ore targets on the Ethiopian side of the depression range between 45m and 600m and almost all lie below the regional water. Also, to access the mineralised material a large volume of variably water-saturated overburden would need to be removed. Even if areas with ore levels above the water table do exist on the Ethiopian side, the whole of the Danakhil sump is subject to periodic runoff and sheetflooding, sourced in the western highlands. Open pit areas would be regularly flooded during the lifetime of the pit, resulting in a need for extensive dewatering. For these reasons, and the possibility of earthquake damage, open pit mining is likely not feasible.

    Can the Danakhil potash be solution mined?

    To achieve this, brines extracted from different mineralogical levels and ore types will need to be individually targeted and kept as separate feeds into dedicated at-surface processing streams. On the Dallol surface, there are numerous sites that are suitable for pan construction, the climate is suitable for natural solar concentration as the region is typically dry, flat and hyperarid. If the potash zones in the Dallol depression are to be economically exploited via solution mining it will likely first require an understanding of the geometries of the 3 different forms of potash, namely; 1) Bedded kainitite-carnallitite (widespread in the depression), 2) Diagenetic sylvite via incongruent dissolution (focused by deep meteoric mixing and the bajada chemical interface along the western margin. 3) Hydrothermal potash (largely found in the vicinity of Dallol mound). Next, in order to have known-chemistry feedstocks into a SOP chemical plant, it will require the appropriate application of extraction/solution mining chemistries for each of these deposit styles. This would involve the construction of dedicated brine fields and the pumping of shallow Dallol brines (mostly from <200-250m below the surface) into a series of mineralogically-separated at-surface solar concentrator pans. 

    There are some subsurface aspects that need to be considered and controlled  in a solution mining approach in the Danakhil. The first is the possibility of uncontrolled solution cavity stoping (for example where a solution cavity blanket layer is lost due to cavity intersection with an unexpected zone of high permeability). If cavity shape is not closely monitored (for example by regular downhole sonar scans) and controlled, this could ultimately lead to the collapse of the land surface atop regions of shallow evaporites (<150-200 below the surface). As we saw in blog 3, doline collapse is a natural process in the Dallol Mound region, as it is any region of shallow soluble evaporites in contact with undersaturated pore waters. Ongoing solution via interaction with hydrothermal waters has created the colorful brine springs that attract tourists to the Dallol Mound region. But a operator does not want new dolines to daylight in their brine field, as environmental advocates would quickly lay blame at the feet of the brinefield operator. For this reason, the region in the vicinity of the Dallol Mount (eg the “Crescent deposit”) should probably be avoided.

    Most modern brinefield operators prefer a slowly-dissolving targeted salt bed that is at least 400-500m below the land surface (Warren, 2015). This broadens and lessens the intensity of the cone of ground collapse above the extraction zone and so lessens the possibility of catastrophic surface collapse. Use of a diesel rather than air blanket during cavity operation is also preferred because of potential porosity intersections at the base of the Upper Rock Salt (URF) contact (see blog 2 in the Danakhil blogs) Appropriate deeper potash beds in the Danakhil are laterally continuous beds of kainitite with lesser carnallitite. Drilling to date has identified little sylvite or bischofite in these widespread layers. This simplifies the mineral input chemistry in terms of a kainite target further out in the saltflat with a sylvite or sylvite bischofite operation closer toward the western margin, but there are no currently active solution mines solely targeting a kainite ore anywhere in the world.

    This leads to another consideration with a solution mining approach in the Danakhil depression, and that is that there are no existing brine technologies that can deal economically with high concurrent levels of magnesium and possibly-elevated sulphate levels in a recovered brine feed. The third consideration is reliably predicting the occurrence of, and avoiding, any metre- to decametre-scale brine-filled cavities that the drilling has shown are not uncommon at the sylvinite-bischofite-carnallite level in the Dallol stratigraphy along the Bajada chemistry zone. Intersecting and slowly dewatering such large brine cavities may not lead to at-surface ground collapse, but if not identified could create unexpected variations in the ionic proportions of brine feeds into the solar concentrators (for example drilling has identified subsurface regions dominated by bischofite, which is one of the most soluble bittern salts in the Danakhil depression - see Ercospan 2010, 2011 for drill result summaries).

    And so?

    So, at this stage, there are encouraging possibilities for economic recovery of both MOP and SOP from solution brines pumped to chemistry-specific solar pans in the Danakhil. Processing chemistry will require further site-specific studies to see which of the current known methods or their modification is economically feasible for SOP and perhaps combined SOP and MOP manufacture in the hyperarid climate of the Danakhil, as is being currently done by Allana Potash. It is also possible that a new processing stream chemistry could to be developed for the Dallol brines, in order to deal with very high concurrent levels of MgCl2 (widespread bischofite beds), or develop new or modify existing processing streams that target kainitite at depth. Similar K2SO4 brine processing chemistries have been applied in pans of the margins of the Great Salt Lake. But there salt pan processing was in part seasonally cryogenic, something that the Dallol climate certainly is not, so it is likely modified or new approaches to year-round pan management will be required.

    Any future potash operation in the Danakil will have to compete in product pricing with well established, high-volume low cost producers in Canada, Belarus and Russia (Figure 8). Today, establishing a new conventional underground potash mine is associated with setup costs well in excess of a billion dollars (US$). The costs are high as the entry shaft to a conventional underground mine must be completed without water entry and is usually done via ground freezing. This is the approach currently underway at BHP’s MOP Jansen Mine in Saskatchewan, Canada. Because of the very high costs involved in underground entry construction, and the well established nature of the competition, the proved amount of ore for a conventional mine should be sufficient for at least 20 years of production (subject to a given mill size, mill recovery rate for a given ore depth and the density and origin of salt “horses”). Kogel et al. (2006) states any potash plant or mill should be at capable of least 300,000 t K2O per annum in order to compete with a number of established plants with nameplate capacity in excess of 1 Mt.

    In contrast, the shallow nature of a Danakhil potash source means cheaper access costs, while a solution well approach makes for much cheaper and shorter approach times for brine/ore extraction, providing suitable economic brine processing streams are available (Figure 8). Potash is a mine product where transport to market is a very considerable cost proportion in terms of an operation's profitability. The location of the Danakhil gives it a low-cost transport advantage as a future supplier to the ever-growing agricultural markets of Africa, India and perhaps China. And finally, a potassium sulphate product has a 30% cost premium over a muriate of potash (KCl) product.

    References

    Bukowski, K., and G. Czapowski, 2009, Salt geology and mining traditions: Kalush and Stebnyk mines (Fore-Carpathian region, Ukraine): Geoturystyka, v. 3, p. 27-34.

    Czapowski, G., K. Bukowski, and K. Poborska-Młynarska, 2009, Miocene rock and potash salts of West Ukraine. y): Field geological-mining seminar of the Polish Salt Mining Society. Geologia (Przegląd Solny 2009), Wyd. AGH, Kraków, 35, 3: 479-490. (In Polish, English summary).

    Decima, A., J. A. McKenzie, and B. C. Schreiber, 1988, The origin of "evaporative" limestones: An Example from the Messinian of Sicily: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 58, p. 256-272.

    Decima, A., and F. Wezel, 1973, Late Miocene evaporites of the central Sicilian Basin; Italy: Initial reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, v. 13, p. 1234-1240.

    Decima, A., and F. C. Wezel, 1971, Osservazioni sulle evaporiti messiniane della Sicilia centromeridionale: Rivista Mineraria Siciliana, v. 130–132, p. 172–187.

    Garcia-Veigas, J., F. Orti, L. Rosell, C. Ayora, R. J. M., and S. Lugli, 1995, The Messinian salt of the Mediterranean: geochemical study of the salt from the central Sicily Basin and comparison with the Lorca Basin (Spain): Bulletin de la Societe Geologique de France, v. 166, p. 699-710.

    Garrett, D. E., 1995, Potash: Deposits, processing, properties and uses: Berlin, Springer, 752 p.

    Hite, R. J., and A. S. Wassef, 1983, Potential Potash Deposits in the Gulf of Suez, Egypt: Ann. Geol. Survey Egypt, v. 13, p. 39-54.

    Hryniv, S. P., B. V. Dolishniy, O. V. Khmelevska, A. V. Poberezhskyy, and S. V. Vovnyuk, 2007, Evaporites of Ukraine: a review: Geological Society, London, Special Publications, v. 285, p. 309-334.

    Koriń, S. S., 1994, Geological outline of Miocene salt-bearing formations of the Ukrainian fore-Carpathian area (In Polish, English summary): Przegląd Geologiczny, v. 42, p. 744-747.

    Lowenstein, T. K., L. A. Hardie, M. N. Timofeeff, and R. V. Demicco, 2003, Secular variation in seawater chemistry and the origin of calcium chloride basinal brines: Geology, v. 31, p. 857-860.

    Lowenstein, T. K., M. N. Timofeeff, S. T. Brennan, H. L. A., and R. V. Demicco, 2001, Oscillations in Phanerozoic seawater chemistry: Evidence from fluid inclusions: Science, v. 294, p. 1086-1088.

    Lugli, S., 1999, Geology of the Realmonte salt deposit, a desiccated Messinian Basin (Agrigento, Sicily): Memorie della Societá Geologica Italiana, v. 54, p. 75-81.

    Lugli, S., and T. K. Lowenstein, 1997, Paleotemperatures preserved in fluid inclusions in Messinian halite, Realmonte Mine (Agrigento, Italy): Neogene Mediterranean Paleoceanography, 28–30 September 1997, Erice. Abstract volume, 44–45.

    Lugli, S., B. C. Schreiber, and B. Triberti, 1999, Giant polygons in the Realmonte mine (Agrigento, Sicily): Evidence for the desiccation of a Messinian halite basin: Journal of Sedimentary Research Section A-Sedimentary Petrology & Processes, v. 69, p. 764-771.

    Manzi, V., S. Lugli, M. Roveri, B. C. Schreiber, and R. Gennari, 2011, The Messinian "Calcare di Base" (Sicily, Italy) revisited: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 123, p. 347-370.

    Notholt, A. J. G., 1983, Potash in Developing Countries, in R. M. McKercher, ed., Potash '83; Potash technology; mining, processing, maintenance, transportation, occupational health and safety, environment, p. 29-40.

    Oszczypko, N., P. Krzywiec, I. Popadyuk, and T. Peryt, 2006, Carpathian Foredeep Basin (Poland and Ukraine): Its Sedimentary, Structural, and Geodynamic Evolution, in J. Golonka, and F. J. Picha, eds., The Carpathians and their foreland: Geology and hydrocarbon resources, The American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir, v. 84, p. 293-350.

    Petryczenko, O. I., G. M. Panow, T. M. Peryt, B. I. Srebrodolski, A. W. Pobereżski, and K. W.M., 1994, Outline of geology of the Miocene evaporite formations of the Ukrainian part of the Carpathian Foredeep (In Polish, English summary): Przegląd Geologiczny, v. 42, p. 734-737.

    Roveri, M., S. Lugli, V. Manzi, and B. C. Schreiber, 2008, The Messinian Sicilian stratigraphy revisited: new insights for the Messinian salinity crisis: Terra Nova, v. 20, p. 483-488.

    Warren, J. K., 2015, Evaporites: A compendium (ISBN 978-3-319-13511-3) Released August 2015: Berlin, Springer, 1600 p.

    What is an evaporite? Solar versus cryogenic (freeze-dried) salts

    John Warren - Tuesday, February 24, 2015

    The term evaporite is usually used to describe sediment precipitated during the solar-driven desiccation of a standing water body in a saltern or salina, or a near-surface pore brine in an evaporitic mudflat or sabkha. Almost all the modern and ancient examples of bedded salts that we work with in the rock record are thought to have crystallised via this process of solar evaporation. The chemical dynamics of solar evaporation are simple; on average, water molecules within a standing at-surface brine lake or in near-surface pore spaces, near a water-table and its associated capillary zone, do not have enough kinetic energy to escape the liquid phase and so cross the surface tension barrier (figure 1). Otherwise, liquid water would turn to vapour spontaneously and any at-surface liquid phase would spontaneously disappear, while recharge to an underlying water-table would be an impossibility.

     

    Every so often in this situation, the level of solar energy transfer (heat absorption) at the molecular collision site is sufficient to give a water molecule (near the water-air interface) the heat energy necessary to pass into the vapour phase and so exit the liquid water mass (figure 1). That is, for a water molecule to escape into the vapour phase it must absorb heat energy, be located near the liquid surface, be moving in the proper direction and have sufficient energy to overcome liquid-phase intermolecular forces and then pass through the surface tension interface. As the concentration of the residual brine increases, the specific heat capacity decreases, and the density increases (the effects of specific heat and density increases on evaporite mineralogy and distribution in the depositional setting will be the topic of a future blog).

    But salts, some with the same mineralogy as solar evaporation salts, can also form as a water or brine body freezes to leave behind cryogenic salt layers (aka the "freeze-dried" salts). This is the process that forms significant volumes of the sodium sulphate salts in various cold-zone brine lakes and saline ice-sheets around the world. Unlike solar evaporites, cryogenic brines and associated salts require temperatures at or below the freezing point of the liquid phase. Cryogenic salts, such as mirabilite (Na2SO4.10H2O), hydrohalite (NaCl.2H2O), antarcticite (CaCl2.6H2O) and epsomite (MgSO4.7H2O), can then accumulate. These cryogenic salts crystallise in cold, near-freezing, residual brines as they concentrate via the loss of the liquid water phase as it converts/solidifies to ice. As the volume of ice grows, the various anions and cations are excluded from the expanding ice lattice. Hence, concentration of the residual brine increases until it reaches saturation with a salt phase that then precipitates (figure 2). There are a number of well-documented cryogenic salt beds in various Quaternary-age cold-continental lacustrine settings. Probably the best known are the sodium sulphate salts in Karabogazgol, Turkmenistan, where strand-zone stacks of cryogenic mirabilite form each winter. Beneath the lake centre there are subsurface beds (meters thick) of Quaternary-age cryogenic glauberite-halite.

     

    In the Turkmen language, Karabogazgol means “lake of the black throat,” so named because the gulf is continually gulping down the waters of the Caspian Sea, via a narrow connecting natural channel (figure 3). Ongoing evaporation in Karabogazgol keeps the water surface in the perennial brine lake depression around a metre below that of the Caspian. It is one of our few natural examples of evaporative drawdown occurring via a hydrographic (surface) connection to the mother water body. Groundwater seepage connections with the mother water mass are more typical, especially in hot arid basins.

     

    Only since the end of the Soviet era and the re-opening of the lake’s natural connection to the Caspian Sea in 1992, by a newly independent Turkmen government, did Karabogazgol re-fill with perennial brines. Since then, a natural cryogenic mirabilite winter cycle has returned the Karabogaz hydrology to its longterm natural state. Today, the main open water body in the centre of Karabogaz is a Na-Mg-Cl brine, sourced via gravitationally-driven inflow of Caspian Sea waters. Perennial Karabogaz brines today have a density of 1.2 g/cm3, and pH values that range between 7.2 and 9. Surface water temperatures in the lake centre range from around 4°C in December (winter) to 25°C in July (summer). Temperature fluctuations and the cool arid steppe climate (Koeppen BSk) of Karabogazgol combine to drive the precipitation of different mineral phases during the year. Calcite, aragonite and perhaps hydromagnesite usually precipitate from saturated lake surface waters in spring, gypsum and glauberite in summer (via solar evaporation), while rafts of cryogenic mirabilite form at the air brine interface in the winter. These winter rafts are then blown shoreward, to form stacked strand-zone-parallel accumulations of cryogenic mirabilite and halite. By the following summer much of the strand-zone mirabilite has deliquesced or converted to glauberite. In the 1920s and 30’s, prior to the damming of the connecting channel between Karabogaz and the Caspian Sea, the strand-zone salts were harvested by the local peasantry. From the 1950s to 1980s there was a significant Soviet chemical industry operational in the basin, focused on older buried salt bed targets.


    Beneath Karabogaz bay there are 4 beds dominated by various NaSO4 salts (figure 4). These cryogenic beds are likely the result of cooler climatic periods over the last 10,000-20,000 years. Back then, under a glacial climate, large amounts of mirabilite formed each winter, much like today. But, unlike today, a cooler more-humid glacial climate meant that the bay was not as subject to as an intense summer desiccation as it is today. Dense residual bottom brines were perennially ponded and so preserved a summer-halite sealing bed atop the winter NaSO4 layer. This allowed the underlying mirabilite/epsomite    precipitates to be preserved across the lake floor. During the following winter the process was repeated as mirabilite/epsomite/halite beds stacked one atop the other to create a future NaSO4 bedded-ore horizon. In time, a combination of groundwater and exposure, especially nearer the Gulf’s strand-zone, converted most of the mirabilite, along with epsomite, to astrakanite, and then both phases to glauberite in the upper three beds. This explains the association of the richer glauberite zones with the lake edges (figure 4). Whenever water of crystallisation is released by a mirabilite to thenardite conversion, it then slightly dilutes any strong residual brine; in Korabogazgol this facilitated the high sodium-sulphate mineral and brine compositions seen in modern and ancient waters across the bay.

    There are similar cryogenic salt beds preserved in perennial saline lakes across the cold arid portions of the Great Plains of Canada and there is also a mirabilite bed preserved beneath Holocene sediments in Great Salt Lake, Utah. Last century, some of the richer subaqueous salt beds in the Canadian lakes were sources of commercial NaSO4 salts (figure 5). However, extraction of brine and solid salts and an increasingly expensive product meant this area no longer competes with cheaper product from the solar evaporite NaSO4 lakes of Mexico and Turkey. Only one (Big Quill Lake) of the Canadian sites remains operational.


    Hydrohalite is another common cryogenic salt, it quickly redissolves as brine temperatures rise above 0 degrees centigrade and so is said to indicate halite cryogenesis (figure 6). Hydrohalite crystals have distinctive pseudo-hexagonal cross sections (c.f. typical cubic forms of halite) and crystals or NaCl-filled pseudomorphs have been recognised in a number of modern cold saline lake settings. For example, hydrohalite has been extracted from the lake bottom sediments in saline Lake Bonney in Antarctica, where the bottom water temperatures vary between +2.0 and -2.0°C. It also can precipitate in winter in the Baskunchak salt lake, located some 300 km northwest of the Caspian Sea (48°N latitude). There hydrohalite was directly observed on two occasions when formative brine temperatures were between-3° and -23°C. In summer, halite precipitates via solar evaporation in the same saline lake. Hydrohalite also occurs in bottom sediments in salt-saturated cryogenic lakes in Saskatchewan, at about 51°N latitude, and has been observed in nearby saline springs sediments of the Northern Great Plains. Hydrohalite pseudomorphs occur as halite crystals with hexagonal cross sections in cores some 100-140m deep, in Death Valley, California, indicating NaCl cryogenesis occurred in the Pleistocene Death Valley Lake at a time when brine temperatures were less that 0°C.


    When polar seawaters freeze on Earth, hydrohalite and mirabilite precipitate from the residual marine brines and accumulate in ice sheet fissures, or in load-induced fractures in the ice understory wherever an increasingly saline brine sinks into rock fractures beneath the growing ice sheets. For example, there are mirabilite layers on the ice floes of the Ross Ice Shelf near Black Island. Likewise, there are dense residual saline brines in interstitial waters extracted from deep cores in sediments of McMurdo Sound. It seems that when ice sheets retreat, the at-surface cryogenic salts dissolve in the freshened at-surface hydrology, but dense hypersaline brines can remain behind in deep fissures, held and preserved in the rock fractures. In the extreme setting of at-surface brine freezing in some of the small saline depressions in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica, a solid form of calcium chloride, antarcticite, grows cryogenically. Antarcticite precipitates today in Don Juan Pond, Antarctica, in what is probably the most saline perennial natural water mass on Earth (47% salinity). Although the Don Juan pond is often cited in the saline literature as a most impressive example of an extremely-hypersaline modern closed-basin cryogenic hydrology, it should be pointed out that this cryogenic salt pond measures some 100 by 300 metres across and is tens of centimetres deep (figure 7). 

     

    On Earth, the volume of salt beds formed by cryogenesis is much less than the volumes that result from solar evaporation. Extraterrestially, in planets and moons of our solar system with liquid water and located further out than the earth’s orbit, there are likely, at least locally, volumes of cryogenic salts that are significant. Cryogenesis explains sulphate salt (epsomite-dominant) phases that typify ice crack fissures crisscrossing the surface of Europa (a moon of Jupiter). Sulphate salts also grow seasonally in soils of Mars where, for example, widespread gypsum forms via ice ablation in the circumpolar Martian dune-field. But, for now, I will leave the discussion of the significance of these extraterrestial cryogenic salts, it will be the topic of a future blog dealing with liquid water indications in and on a variety of planets and moons located beyond the earth’s orbit.

    On Earth, as ground temperatures increase, cryogenic salts tend to deliquesce or convert to their higher temperature daughter salts (thenardite, glauberite and halite). But worldwide, in appropriate cold climatic settings, there are numerous examples of cryogenic salt beds; the volumes grow even larger if we include sediments containing cryogenic hydrated calcite (ikaite-glendonite; CaCO3.6H2O). Across deep time, the volume of cryogenic salts increases during glacial episodes, their susceptibility to deliquescence and conversion as temperatures increase means a low propensity for significant preservation other than as pseudomorphs. If such pseudomorphs are to be found across the rock record, then there will be a greater likelihood of their retention and recognition in sediments of the late Tertiary, the Permo-Carboniferous, the Ordovician and the late Neoproterozoic, which are all times of an icehouse climate.


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