Salty Matters

The Blog is written by me, John Warren. Once every three or four weeks or so I will post an article or two on an evaporite topic that has piqued my interest. On the Saltwork Publications webpage (under "the Works") there is a growing library of pdfs and epubs based on these blogs. These articles on the website have much higher resolution extractable graphics in than in the blog. There is also a link to this set of pdfs and epubs on the home page (www.saltworkconsultants.com).

Gases in Evaporites; Part 1 - Rockbursts and gassy outbursts

John Warren - Monday, October 31, 2016

The next three articles discuss gases held within salt and is an attempt to address the following questions; 1) What is the scale and location of known rock-bursts/gas-outbursts in salt rock 2) Where do gases reside in a salt mass at the micro- and meso-scale? 3) What are the gases held in salt? 4) How are gassy salts distributed across various salt deposits across the world (macro-scale) and what are the lithological associations? Topics 1 and 2 are the main focus of the first article, topic 3 mostly in the second, while topic 4, where do gases held in salt generate and reside at the scale of a salt mass or salt bed
is the focus of article 3. Along the way, we shall also discuss whether some of the encapsulated gases in salt can be considered samples of the ambient atmosphere that have been held in brine inclusions since the salt bed was first precipitated? And, as a corollary, we will come to a discussion of how did some of the occluded gases first enter or remobilize through the salt mass during the long history of burial and salt flow (halokinesis) experienced by all ancient evaporite units?


Gases in evaporites can create problems

Various gases such as, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, methane, hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide, can occur in significant volumes in and around domal salt masses or bedded evaporite deposits, as seen in numerous documented examples in mines and drilling blowouts in Louisiana, New Mexico, Germany, Poland and China (Figures 1, 2; Table 1). Gases are held in pressurized pockets in the salt that, if intersected, can create stability and safety problems during an expansion of operations in an active salt mine or during petroleum drilling, especially if the pockets contain significant levels of toxic or flammable gases, sufficient to drive rockbursts or gassy outbursts into the adjacent opening. A gas outburst (or rockburst) is defined as an unexpected, nearly instantaneous expulsion of gas and rock salt from a mine production face, normally resulting in an expanded open cavity in the salt. Outburst cavity shapes are generally metre- to tens of metre-scale combinations of conical, cylindrical, hemispherical, or elongated shapes with an elliptical cross section decreasing in diameter away from the opening (Figure 1). Many mapped examples in salt mines of the US Gulf coast have the shape of a cornucopia (Molinda, 1988).


In the case of blowouts during oil-well drilling, there are two dominant styles of overpressured-salt encounters. The first, and the main focus in blowout discussions this article) is when gassy fluid outbursts occur internally in the salt unit as it is being drilled. Generally, this happens on the way to a test a deeper subsalt target, or less often on the way to test as series of intrasalt beds. Once intersected, pressures in such intrasalt pockets tend to bleed off and so decrease in hours to days as pressure profiles return to normal (Finnie, 2001; Warren 2016; Chapter 8). Providing the drilling system was designed to deal with short-term high-pressure outbursts, drilling can continue toward the target. The other type of gas outburst encountered when drilling salt is located in or near the periphery of a salt mass or bed, especially where the drill bit breaks out on the other side of a salt mass into a highly overpressured and fractured fluid reservoir. Such intersections allow the drill stem to connect with a large highly-overpressured volume of fluids, with the open fractures facilitating extremely high rates of fluid flow into the well bore. This type of breach draws on a significant fluid volume and a resulting blowout can continue unabated for weeks or months.

Perhaps one the most impressive examples of this type of blowout, and the ability of evaporite unit to seal and maintain an overpressured subsalt pressurized cell, comes from the Alborz 5 discovery in Central Iran (Figure 2; Morley et al., 2013; Gretener, 1982; Mostofi and Gansser, 1957). Earlier wells testing the Alborz Anticline had failed to reach target due to drilling difficulties coming from “an extremely troublesome evaporite section[i] that continually menaced drilling and caused numerous sidetrack operations.” So difficult was drilling through this stressed Upper Red Formation salt unit that it had taken eight months for a previous well to drill through some 170 metres of evaporitic sediments to reach the Qom target. Later wells testing a Qom Fm. target, like Aran-1 to the south of the Alborz anticline, did not intersect thick stressed halite above the Qom Fm., only an anhydrite layer that perhaps was the dissolution residues of former halokinetic salt mass (pers obs.). The discovery well in the Alborz anticline (Alborz 5) had drilled through some 2296 m of middle to late Tertiary clastics and some 381 metres of Oligo-Miocene salines in the lower part of the Upper Red Formation and made up of siliciclastics, banded salt, anhydrite (Figure 3). On its way to the blowout point, the lower part of the well trajectory had penetrated normally to slightly overpressured dirty salt (halokinetic) and then penetrated some 5 cm into the fractured subsalt Qom Limestone (Oligo-Miocene). On August 26, 1956, the entire drill string and mud column were blown back out the hole and many metres into the air. At that time, the mud pressure was 55 MPa (8,000 psi) at a reservoir depth of 2700 m (8,800 ft), a pressure depth ratio of 20.5 kPa/m or 0.91 psi/ft (a lithostatic value!). Over 82 days, the well released 5 million barrels of oil and a large, but unknown quantity of gas before it self-bridged and the flow died on November 18, 1956. The temperature of the oil at the surface was measured at 115°C and at the time of the blowout the mud column density was 2.07 x 103 kg/m3 (129 lb/ft3)(see Figure 3). This type of subsalt overpressured gas occurrence illustrates salt’s ability to act as a highly effective seal holding back huge volumes of highly overpressured fluid. Associated occluding processes are discussed in an earlier series of Salty Matters articles dealing with salt as a seal, especially the article published March 13, 2016.

 

Gassy salt (knistersalz)

Much of the occluded gas in a salt body, prior to release into a mine opening or well bore, is held within inclusions within salt crystals or in intercrystalline positions between the salt crystals. Gas-entraining rock salt, was known from salt mines of Poland and in East Germany since the 1830s and described as knistersalz (literally translates as “crackling salt”). In many mines, walking on knistersalz releases gas as little popping sounds from underfoot. The pressure of the shoe adds a little more stress to an already gas-stressed fragment of salt (Roedder, 1972, 1984). Dumas (1830) first described such “popping salt from Wieliczka, Po­land, and concluded that gas was evolved, presumably from compressed gas inclusions, upon dissolving the salt. Further details on the occurrence were given by Rose (1839). As we shall see, this type of salt can cause serious mine accidents when large volumes of salt explo­sively and spontaneously decrepitate into the mine openings as rockbursts. Dumas (1830) and Rose (1839) found the released gas from "popping " salt in Germany to be inflammable. Bun­sen (1851, p. 251) found 84.6 % CH4 in the gas released during the dissolution of Wieliczka salt, while in many early mines in Germany the occluded gas phase is dominated by nitrogen or carbon dioxide (see Article 2). 

Knistersalz will "pop" sporadically once placed in water, releasing pressurized gas bubbles as the salt matrix dissolves. This simple demonstration of gas presence is also the foundation for one method of determining the gas content of a rock salt sample (Hyman, 1982). The sometimes rather energetic "pops" that can occur as gases are released from a gas-enriched rock salt sample attest to the high pressures under which the gases are occluded. Pressures postulated in knistersalz can be near-lithostatic and even higher depending on local stresses, related to the low creep limits of rock salt, particularly around mine openings. According to Hoy et al. 1962, CO2-bearing gas mixtures in the knistersalz of the Winnfield salt dome (Louisiana, USA) is under a pressure of 490 - 980 bar (49 - 98 MPa) at 0°C. Similar values (500 - 1000 bar or 50 - 100 MPa) are given by Hyman (1982) for gas bubbles held in rock salt in various Louisiana salt domes. For example, during exploratory drilling in one such Louisiana salt dome, methane gas was released from the salt under a pressure of 62 bar (6.2 MPa) at a flow rate of 1.2 m3/hr (Iannachione et al., 1984). 

Mining causes a pressure drop in the rock salt as it is extracted from a working face and such pressure drops can change the phase of a fluid occluded in salt, or change the solubility of a gas dissolved in such a fluid. Carbon dioxide, in particular, is susceptible to a phase change because its critical point is close to some ambient mining conditions. As long as CO2 is present above 1070 psi (7.4 MPa) and below 31°C (88°F; critical point), it will be in a liquid phase. Such conditions are not typical in salt mines in the US. However, CO2 generally exists as a liquid in rock salt in many German potash mines (Gimm, Thoma and Eckart, 1966). When mining drops the pressure (from lithostatic to near atmospheric) the CO2 phase will change to a gas, causing abrupt expansion. The sudden change also results in a 5 to 6°C cooling, as measured in regions near large outbursts (Wolf, 1966). The solubility of gases dissolved in brine also changes when mining. For example, the solubility of methane in brine is extremely low at atmospheric pressure and so is released as gas bubbles from a brine issuing from rock salt fissures upon mining, as observed in a number of US Gulf Coast salt mines (Iannacchione and Schatzel, 1985).

Pressures released during an outburst result in velocities at the outburst throat which can be very large and locally approach sonic velocities (Ehgartner et al., 1998). Velocities of more than 152 m/sec (500 ft/s) have been recorded in vertical airways some distance from rockbursts in Germany. Velocities at the rockburst site would be even higher. Narrow throat characteristic of some rockbursts can result in throttling. However, associated pressure waves are not strong enough to cause the observed levels of equipment destruction, since they are of a magnitude similar to those found in blasting. Rather, observed damage associated with rockbursts is due to flying debris in the pressure wave as the quantities of rock thrown out by the burst have high kinetic energy (Wolf, 1966). 

Given the relatively impermeable nature of bedded and halokinetic salt, occluded gases generally are not released from their containment unless mining or drilling activities intercept (1) a gas-filled fissure zone, an area where the voids between the salt crystals are interconnected, (2) a mechanically unstable zone of gas-enriched salt that disaggregates, releasing its entrained gases (a blowout), or (3) as the mine or the drill bit enters some other relatively permeable geologic anomaly (Kupfer, 1990).

  

Gassy outbursts and rockbursts in salt

Outbursts are documented in the U.S., Canada, and throughout northern Europe in various salt and potash mines (Figure 2; Table 1). The salt domes of northern Europe and the US Gulf coast are in particular loaded with pockets of abundant gas inclusions (Ehgartner et al., 1998). Many dangerous pockets of methane and H2S were intersected during the opening of shafts into the domes of Zechstein salts in the Saxony region, Germany and several early potash mines in the area were abandoned because of problems caused by rockbursts and associated gas outflows (Gropp, 1919; Löffler, 1962; Gimm, 1968). Before the current practice of evacuating any gas-prone salt mine prior to blasting, many fatalities resulted from such gas and rock outbursts (Table 1). A significant portion of the deaths was due to secondary factors (post-rockburst), such as methane fires, CO2 suffocation, and H2S poisoning (Dorfelt, 1966). Even with the practice of mine evacuation prior to blasting, outburst gases have in some cases filled a mine, blown out of the mine shafts, and caused fatalities at the surface. This was the case in Menzengraben in 1953, as heavier-than-air CO2 gas, released by a blasting-induced rockburst, blew out of the mine shafts for 25 minutes and flowed downhill into a nearby village, where it ponded and ultimately suffocated 3 people in their sleep (Hedlund, 2012)

The most frequent and largest rockbursts and gas outflows from subsurface salt occurred in the Werra mining district in former East Germany. Gimm and Pforr (1964) report that rockbursts occurred every day in the Werra region. If one also includes potash mines in the Southern Harz region, more than 10,000 outbursts were recorded up till the 1960s in the German salt mines (Dorfelt, 1966). The 1953 Menzengraben(Potash Mine No. 3) rockburst blew out some 100,000 metric tons of fractured rock salt (approximately 1.6 million cubic feet). This may well be the world’s largest rockburst in terms of cavity size (Gimm, 1968). In an earlier incident in the same region in 1886, the shaft Aschersleben II was flooded with water and gas as it reached a depth of 300 m. A pilot hole drilled from the temporary bottom of the shaft into the underlying Stassfurt rock salt, hit a gas pocket, releasing a combination of H2S—CH4—N2 gases, which then escaped under high pressure for some two hours carrying with it an NaCl brine to the height of a “house” above the shaft floor before the outflow abated. The shaft was abandoned (Baar, 1977).

In 1887 the shaft Leopoldshall III, at Stassfurt, had been sunk through the caprock, and into the Zechstein salt to a total depth of 412 m subsurface, when it hit a gas pocket containing H2S, and four miners were killed by gas escape. Subsequently, in 1889, seven more were killed during shaft construction in the same mine. In 1895, a large volume of CO2 was released from rock salt at a depth of 206 m during the sinking of the Salzungen shaft (Gimm 1968, p. 547). Numerous other outbursts of gas occurred in the same Werra-Fulda district with most mines operating at depths greater than 300 meters, with outbursts responsible for a number of deaths both below and above ground. According to Gimm (1968, p. 547), since 1856, toxic gases were also encountered during the sinking of a number of other shafts in the Stassfurt area. Gropp (1918) documents 106 gas occurrences in German potash mines for the period 1907 to 1917, at depths of ≈300 meters and greater. Many of these gassy encounters caused casualties, particularly in salt dome mines of the Hannover area where several of the potash mines were abandoned due to dangerous gas intersections (Barr, 1977).

Less severe examples of gas outbursts and rockbursts transpired in other salt mines around the world (Figure 2). More than 200 gas outbursts with ejected rock salt volumes up to 4500 tons have occurred in the Upper Kama potash deposits of Russia (Laptev and Potekhin, 1989). Baltaretu and Gaube (1966) reported sudden gassy outbursts in potassium salt deposits in Rumania. Outbursts in Polish salt mines were noted by Bakowski (1966). Potash mines in England and Canada also exhibited outbursts (Table 1; Schatzel and Dunsbier, 1988) with the most recent case being a gassy outburst that caused a fatality in the Boulby mine in July 2016.

Major rockbursts, tied to methane releases, occurred in Louisiana in four of the 5-Island salt mines exploiting the crestal portions of subcropping salt domes (Belle Isle, Cote Blanche, Weeks Island, and Jefferson Island) with the exception of Avery Island. Gassy outbursts, of mostly CO2, also occurred at the Winnfield salt mine, Louisiana (Table 1). Rockburst diameters range from a few inches up to over 50 ft. Cavity heights range from several inches to several hundred feet. Smaller rockburst and cavities in the Five-Island mines were ordinarily not reported (Kupfer,1990). Only the more gas-inclusion-rich salt decrepitates in these mines, and the concave curvatures of the walls are such that the resulting slight additional confining force from the concavity keeps the remaining salt from decrepitating further (Figures 1, 4; Roedder, 1984).


The larger outburst shapes tended to be cornucopian in shape, whereas the shorter ones were conchoidally shaped with symmetrical dimensions (Figure 4). Outbursts approaching several hundred feet high were documented in the Jefferson Island and Belle Isle mines. The disaster at Belle Isle mine in 1979, in which five miners died, proved that high-pressure methane in large quantities could be released near instantaneously during a rockburst. It was estimated that more than 17,000 m3 (600,000 ft3) of methane was emitted by the 1979 outburst (Plimpton, et al.,1980). At the former Morton mine at Weeks Island, an even larger gas emission apparently occurred in connection with a rockburst. It was estimated that as much as 1,020 m3 (36,100 ft3) of salt was released as 1.4 million m3 (50 million ft3) of gas filled the former Morton Mine (MSHA,1983). If the limited number of sample points represent a well-mixed mine atmosphere, the gas alone would occupy approximately 17,000 m3 (600,000 ft3) in the salt at lithostatic pressure (Plimpton, et al.,1980).

Outbursts occurred during mining in all three of the mines at Weeks Island - the “old” Morton mine (the site of the now abandoned U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve), the Markel mine, and the “new” Morton mine. Perhaps the largest outburst at the “new” Morton mine occurred on October 6, 1982, in the southwest corner of the 1200-ft level, close to the edge of the dome. A balloon with an attached measuring string is typically used to estimate the height of the major vertical outbursts. A balloon went up more than 30 m (100 ft) into an outburst some 10 m (35 ft) wide (MSHA, 1983). Outbursts in the old Morton mine occurred only in the larger lower level (-800 ft) of the two level mine outside the vertically projected boundary of the upper (-600 ft) level. A similar trend was noted at Jefferson Island where no gas outbursts occurred in the upper level of the mine. The outbursts observed at the Jefferson Island mine were in the same relative position at both the 1300-ft and 1500-ft levels. This is attributed to the near vertical orientation of a very gassy zone of salt (Iannacchione, et al., 1984). Structural continuity (banding) is nearly vertical in many Gulf coast salt dome diapirs, except where the top of the dome has mushroomed. As a result, horizontal runs of outbursts have reportedly been small, and unlikely to connect caverns separated by 100 ft or more (Thoms and Martinez, 1978.).

The geometry of the gas pockets is not well known. Thoms & Martinez (1978) argued that prior to the rockburst the gas is concentrated in vertical, cylindrical zones or pockets, which were created and elongated by the upward movement of the salt. Mapping in the Five-Island mines shows that the rockbursts are often aligned along structural trends . At Winnfield (Hoy et al., 1962), and possibly at Belle Isle (Kupfer,1978), the outbursts occur close to the edge of the dome. In other cases (e.g., Cote Blanche and Belle Isle) the outbursts follow structural trends such as shear zones within the dome (Kupfer, 1978). In all cases, there is an association between methane gas occurrence and other anomalous features such as dirty salt, sediment inclusions and oil or brine seeps (see article 2).

Rockbursts are not limited to gassy intersections in domal salt. High-pressure pockets of inert gas, typically nitrogen, are documented in bedded potash mines (Carlsbad, NM), and combustible gases (methane)and fluids (brine and oil) in potash mines in Utah (Djahanguiri, 1984). The Cane Creek potash mine (Utah). exploiting halokinetic salts sandwiched by the bedded formations of the Paradox Basin, had a history of fatalities and extensive equipment damage as a result of rockbursts (Westfield, et al., 1963). In contrast, no gassy outbursts were reported during the construction and operation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in the bedded salts of southeastern New Mexico. During WIPP construction, routine drilling ahead of the road-header checked for gas, but found very little (Munson, 1997).

In my opinion, some gas pockets in domal salt can be related to the diagenetic process creating a caprock, where metahne and H2S are typical byproducts. In others, the gases are related to the burial history and recrystallisation (partially preserving primary nitrogen), while in yet others, the gas release is related to heating and alteration especially of the hydrated salts (hydrogen) and associated fracturing related to igneous intrusion (CO2). In some cases, gases were encountered in fracture systems of cap anhydrite close to the top or edge of the salt dome; such fracture systems apparently had connections to the groundwater as the gassy outbursts were followed by water of varying salinity. In other cases, fracture systems headed by a gas cap connected the expanding mine to overlying aquifers and ongoing salt dissolution was facilitated. But, in most cases of rockburst located within the interior of a salt mass, the majority of the intersected gas pockets are isolated, as once the burst occurred most cavities tended to receive little if any subsequent recharge, so gas and brine outflow rates tended to decrease to zero across hours to days (Loffler, 1962). The relationship between the type of gas, its position in the salt, and possible lithological associations are documented and discussed in detail in articles 2 and 3.

 

The physics that drives rock and gas outbursts in an expanding mine-face or shaft is relatively straightforward. In the petroleum industry, it constitutes a process set that is already well documented as the cause of many salt-associated gassy blowouts such as Alborz 5 (Figure 3; Warren, 2016 – Chapter 8 for detail on pressure distribution in and about a salt mass). Oilfield blowouts associated with salt occur when pore pressures in fluids in the drilled rock approach or even exceed lithostatic and the weight of mud in the approaching borehole is not sufficient to hold back this overpressured fluids entering and escaping up the borehole (Figure 3). Spindletop and other famous caprock blowouts in the early days of salt dome drilling in Texas and Louisiana are famous examples of this process (Figure 5). Ehgartner et al. (1998) argue that the same pressure release occurs as an expanding mine face approaches a gassy zone in the mined salt. Once the pressure is reduced by the approach of the mine face, the release of gas formerly held in place by lithostatic pressure within a homogenously stressed salt mass will release, the enclosing rock salt will lose cohesion and so a rockburst (gas outburst) occurs (Figure 6).

 

How is the gas held and distributed within salt at the micro and mesoscale (microns to metres)?

That free gas and gas in inclusions occur simultaneously in salt masses is undeniable, numerous examples come from salt mines and salt cores (Table 1). Gases are held in evaporite salts in three ways (Hermann and Knipping, 1993); 1) Crack- and fissure-bound gases, 2) Mineral-bound gases, a) intracrystal, b) intercrystal, and 3) Absorption-bound gases. Type 1 occurrences, as the name suggests, are defined by gas accumulations in open fractures and fissures, typically in association with brine. Some occurrences are tied to pressurized aquifers, others are isolated local accumulations within the salt. Intracrystal gas occurs as bubbles, some elongate, some rounded in brine inclusions that are fully enclosed within a crystal (typically halite). At the micro (thin section-SEM scale), intracrystalline gases typically form as a few to aggregates of small bubbles, arranged along crystallographic axes or planes, with bubble diameters in the range 1 to 100 µm. Intercrystalline gases occupy the boundary planes of crystals in contact with one another, that is intercrystalline gases occupy polyhedral porosity. According to Hermann and Knipping (1993), up to 90% of the mineral-bound CO2gas mixtures in the salt rocks of the Werra-Fulda mining district is likely intercrystalline, and the remaining 10% is intracrystalline. Absorption bonding is likely an independent form of gas fixation in salt. Adsorptive bonding describes the ability of solids, especially clays, and crystalline compounds to store gas on their surfaces in the form of layered molecules, most would term this a subset of microporous gas storage in a shale.


[i]The stresses in and around and in salt structures can be high and troublesome to stabilize, even today and is an indication of the ongoing dynamic nature of salt flow and recrystallisation in the subsurface.Therefore, if borehole fluid pressure is lower than salt strength during drilling, stress relaxation may significantly reduce open-hole diameters. In some cases, relaxation causes borehole restrictions even before drilling and completion operations are finished and casing has been set.

References 

Bakowski, J., M. Dialy, A. Litonski, and J. Poborski, 1966, Concurrence, Investigation and Forecasting of Sudden Outbursts in Polish Salt Mines: In; International Congress on Problems of Sudden Outbursts of Gas and Rock. Leipzig, German Democratic Republic, October, 1966.

Baltaretu, R., and R. Gaube, 1966, A Sudden Outburst of Gas and Rock in Particular Conditions: In; International Congress on Problems of Sudden Outbursts of Gas and Rock. Leipzig, German Democratic Republic, October, 1966.

Barr, C. A., 1977, Applied Salt-rock Mechanics: The in-situ behavior of salt rocks, v. 1: Berlin, Elsevier, 294 p.

Bunsen, R., 1851, Ueber die Processe der vulkanischen Gesteinsbildungen Islands: Annalen Physik u. Chemie, v. 83, p. 197-272. Translated in Tyndall, John, and Francis, William, eds., Science Memoirs, Natural Phi­losophy [New Ser.]: London, Taylor and Francis, v. 1, pt. 1, p.33-98, 1852.

Chaturvedi, L., 1984, Occurrence of Gas in the Salado Formation: Report for State of New Mexico, Environmental Evaluation Group, EEG-25, Santa Fe, NM. 30 p.

Djahanguiri, F., 1984, Critical Aspects of Mining Technology in Excavation of a Nuclear Waste Repository in Salt: In; International Society of Rock Mechanics, Symposium on Design and Performance of Underground Excavations, Paper 39.

Dorfelt, H., 1966, Sudden Outbursts of Gas and Rock in the Mining of the GDR in Relation to the Safety in Mines: In: International Congress on Problems of Sudden Outbursts of Gas and Rock. Leipzig, German Democratic Republic, October, 1966.

Dumas, J., 1830, Note sur une variete de sel gemme qui decrepite au contact d l'eau: Annales Chimie et Physique, v. 43, p. 316-320.

Ehgartner, B. L., J. T. Neal, and T. E. Hinkebein, 1998, Gas Releases from Salt: SAND98-1354, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, June 1998.

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Gimm, W., 1968, Kali- und Steinsalzbergbau. 1, Aufschluß und Abbau von Kali- und Steinsalzlagerstätten (Potash and rock salt mining. 1, Decomposition and degradation of potash and rock salt deposits): Leipzig, Deutscher Verlag für Grundstoffindustrie.

Gimm, W., and H. Pforr, 1964, Breaking Behavior of Salt Rock Under Rockbursts and Gas Outbursts: In: 4th International Conference on Strata Control and Rock Mechanics, Columbia University, NY, May 4-8, 1964.

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Gretener, P. E., 1982, Another look at Alborz nr. 5 in Central Iran: Vereinigung Schweizerischer Petroleum-Geologen und Ingenieure Bulletin, v. 48, p. 1-8.

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Hedlund, F. H., 2012, The extreme carbon dioxide outburst at the Menzengraben potash mine, 7 July 1953: Safety Science, v. 50, p. 537-553.

Hermann, A. G., and B. Knipping, 1993, Waste disposal and evaporites: Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences (Springer-Verlag), v. 24, p. 193.

Hoy, R. B., R. M. Foose, and B. J. O'Neill Jr., 1962, Structure of Winnfield salt dome, Winn Parish, Louisiana: American Association Petroleum Geologists - Bulletin, v. 46, p. 1444-1459.

Hyman, D. M., 1982, Methodology for determining occluded gas contents in domal salt rock: US Bureau of Mines report of Investigation #8700.

Iannacchione, A., R. Grau, A. Sainato, T. Kohler, and Schatzel, 1984, Assessment of Methane Hazards in an Anomalous Zone of a Gulf Coast Salt Dome: Bureau of Mines Report of Investigations RI-8861, U.S. Dept. of the Interior.

Kupfer, D., 1980, Problems associated with anomalous zones in Louisiana salt stocks, USA, in A. H. Coogan, and H. Lukas, eds., Fifth Symposium on Salt (Hamburg, Germany, June 1978), v. 1: Cleveland OH, Northern Ohio Geological Society, p. 119-134.

Kupfer, D. H., 1990, Anomalous features in the Five Islands salt stocks, Louisiana: Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies Transactions, v. 40, p. 425-437.

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Molinda, G. M., 1988, Investigation of Methane Occurrence and Outbursts in the Cote Blanche Domal Salt Mine, Louisiana US Bureau of Mines Report of Investigation No. 9186, 31 p.

Morley, C. K., D. W. Waples, P. Boonyasaknanon, A. Julapour, and P. Loviruchsutee, 2013, The origin of separate oil and gas accumulations in adjacent anticlines in Central Iran: Marine and Petroleum Geology, v. 44, p. 96-111.

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MSHA (Mine Safety and Health Administration), 1983, Report of Nonfatal Outburst of Flammable Gas, Morton Salt Division of Morton Thiokol, Inc., Weeks Island Mine, New Iberia, Iberia Parish, Louisiana: Accident Investigation Report, report 16-00970, October 6, 1982. Published, January 31, 1983.

Munson, D. E., 1997, Constitutive model of creep in rock salt applied to underground room closure: International Journal of Rock Mechanics & Mining Sciences & Geomechanics, v. 34, p. 233-247.

Plimpton, H. G., R. K. Foster, J. S. Risbeck, R. P. Rutherford, R. F. King, G. L. Buffington, and W. C. Traweek, 1980, Final Report of Mine Explosion Disaster Belle Isle Mine Cargill, Inc. Franklin, St. Mary Parish, Louisiana June 8, 1979: Dept. of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration, Report No. MINE ID 1600246, 135 p.

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Schatzel, S. J., and M. S. Dunsbier, 1988, Roof Outbursting at a Canadian Bedded Salt Mine: In; U.S. Mine Ventilation Symposium, 4’h proceeding, Reno, NV, 1988.

Thoms, R. L., and J. D. Martinez, 1978, Blowouts in domal salt: Fifth Symposium on Salt, Northern Ohio Geological Society, p. 405-411.

Warren, J. K., 2016, Evaporites: A compendium (ISBN 978-3-319-13511-3): Berlin, Springer, 1854 p.

Westfield, J., L. D. Knill, and A. C. Moschetti, 1963, US Bureau of Mines; Final report of major mine-explosion disaster: Cane Creek Mine, Potash Division, Texas Gulf Sulphur Company, Grand County, Utah

Wolf, H., 1966, Aerodynamics of Sudden Outbursts of Salt and Gas: International Congress on Problems of Sudden Outbursts of Gas and Rock. Leipzig, German Democratic Republic, October, 1966.


 


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silicified anhydrite nodules recurring slope lines (RSL) K2O from Gamma Log vadose zone Sulphate of potash methanogenesis CaCl2 brine salt periphery salt ablation breccia 18O enrichment sulfate water on Mars halotolerant Neoproterozoic auto-suture SedEx Ingebright Lake DHAB magadiite halite silica solubility Precambrian evaporites Bathymodiolus childressi Karabogazgol potash ore price capillary zone evaporite dissolution nuclear waste storage astrakanite Pilbara Kara bogaz gol lithium brine sinjarite Musley potash Boulby Mine kainitite collapse doline Crescent potash Paleoproterozoic Oxygenation Event extrasalt Gamma log potash ore source rock Stebnyk potash perchlorate carnallitite MVT deposit salt leakage, dihedral angle, halite, halokinesis, salt flow, lithium carbonate mummifiction Platform evaporite gypsum dune Messinian lunette sulphur saline clay dissolution collapse doline salt tectonics CO2 Zabuye Lake meta-evaporite namakier nitrogen Badenian Atlantis II Deep evaporite karst Kalush Potash knistersalz halite-hosted cave Schoenite antarcticite brine pan Magdalen's Road GR log Ripon Weeks Island salt mine Quaternary climate vestimentiferan siboglinids hydrothermal potash well blowout ancient climate snake-skin chert McArthur River Pb-Zn North Pole mass die-back Hadley cell: Danakhil Depression, Afar Dead Sea karst collapse 18O salt seal seal capacity solikamsk 2 causes of glaciation wireline log interpretation Archean lithium battery chert salt suture Salar de Atacama tachyhydrite palygorskite Jefferson Island salt mine vanished evaporite endosymbiosis stable isotope methanotrophic symbionts base metal Stebnik Potash Realmonte potash marine brine mirabilite Neoproterozoic Oxygenation Event mine stability cryogenic salt potash deep seafloor hypersaline anoxic basin black salt hydrogen anomalous salt zones halophile Dead Sea caves alkaline lake flowing salt lot's wife organic matter Deep seafloor hypersaline anoxic lake carbon cycle Ethiopia Warrawoona Group Lake Magadi anthropogenic potash epsomite eolian transport Corocoro copper Sumo supercontinent sulfur evaporite Lomagundi Event evaporite-metal association deep meteoric potash RHOB Lop Nor Neutron Log gas in salt Dead Sea saltworks intrasalt lapis lazuli geohazard bischofite Koppen climate Lop Nur salt karst HYC Pb-Zn natural geohazard carbon oxygen isotope cross plots salt mine allo-suture Mega-monsoon Mesoproterozoic Lamellibrachia luymesi rockburst hydrohalite Pangaea sinkhole cauliflower chert African rift valley lakes zeolite nacholite hectorite circum-Atlantic Salt Basins blowout subsidence basin Koeppen Climate crocodile skin chert York (Whitehall) Mine gassy salt sodium silicate anthropogenically enhanced salt dissolution dark salt venice Five Island salt dome trend hydrothermal karst water in modern-day Mars authigenic silica sulphate Muriate of potash oil gusher 13C enrichment brine evolution Proterozoic well log interpretation gem Calyptogena ponderosa basinwide evaporite H2S Seepiophila jonesi Deep methane well logs in evaporites trona salt trade brine lake edge Great Salt Lake Hyperarid Density log bedded potash SOP Lake Peigneur intersalt climate control on salt Clayton Valley playa: freefight lake CO2: albedo dihedral angle Dallol saltpan 13C High Magadi beds MOP Belle Isle salt mine Ure Terrace evaporite-hydrocarbon association solar concentrator pans Turkmenistan sepiolite Hell Kettle stevensite lazurite DHAL NPHI log Evaporite-source rock association sedimentary copper Zaragoza jadarite Thiotrphic symbionts hydrological indicator Catalayud halokinetic doline NaSO4 salts gas outburst Red Sea waste storage in salt cavity

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