Salty Matters

The Blog is written by me, John Warren. Once every three or four weeks or so I will post an article or two on an evaporite topic that has piqued my interest. On the Saltwork Publications webpage (under "the Works") there is a growing library of pdfs and epubs based on these blogs. These articles on the website have much higher resolution extractable graphics in than in the blog. There is also a link to this set of pdfs and epubs on the home page (www.saltworkconsultants.com).

Volatile evaporite interactions with magma Part 1 of 3: Indications of hydrated salts?

John Warren - Sunday, February 10, 2019

Introduction

Direct and indirect interactions between magma and evaporites at a regional scale are neither well documented, nor well understood. Mostly, this is because little or no salt remains once the high-temperature interactions have run their course; instead, there is a suite of indirect geochemical and indicator-mineral assemblages (Warren, 2016). Aside from the presence of what can be ambiguous indicator suites, some hard-rock geologists with a career working in igneous and metamorphic terranes may not be well versed in textures indicative of the former presence of sedimentary evaporites, nor their varying volatility, nor their meta-evaporitic and meta-igneous siblings.

The term pyrometasomatic encompasses some, but not all, of the types of salt-magma interaction and reactions that occur when evaporites and molten magmas of different types are nearby. Styles of evaporites interactions with magma are a spectrum, with two endmember situations; 1) orthomagmatic (salt-assimilative and internal to the magma), and 2) paramagmatic (salt-interactive and external to the magma). Both encompass outcomes that can include a variety of substantial ore deposits (Warren, 2016; Chapter 16). Only in situations where igneous sills and dykes have intruded salt masses, with contacts preserved, can direct effects of magma-salt interaction be documented. Even then, determining the timing of the evaporite igneous interaction can be problematic; one must ask if the chemistry and texture indicate, 1) syn-igneous emplacement, or 2) post-emplacement alteration and deeply circulating groundwater flushing, or 3) a combination.

Orthomagmatic and paramagmatic evaporite associations are distinct from occurrences of primary igneous/magmatic anhydrites, which precipitate from sulphate-saturated melts. Igneous anhydrite forms independently of any sedimentary evaporite assimilation, as seen, for example, in anhydrite crystals crystallised in trachyandesitic pumice erupted from El Chichón Volcano in 1982, or in dacitic pumices erupted from Mount Pinatubo in 1991 and in acidic lavas in the Yanacocha district of northern Peru (Luhr et al., 2008; Chambefort et al., 2008). These evaporite assimilations are also distinct from fumarolic anhydrite, which precipitates where groundwaters and sulphur-bearing magmatic fluids interact, as on Usu Volcano, Hokkaido, and many central American and Andean volcanoes such as El Laco (Zimbelman et al., 2005). Likewise, they are distinct from the anhydrite precipitates (white smokers) in and below submarine vents across numerous mid-oceanic ridges (Humphris et al., 1995). See Warren 2016 (Chapter 16) for more geological detail on these non-evaporite-igneous anhydrite occurrences.

Cooking with salt (thermal decomposition of hydrated versus non-hydrated salts)

Perhaps the most critical factor controlling the local intensity of magmatic interaction with an evaporitic country rock is whether or not the sedimentary evaporite assemblage, in proximity to an igneous heat source, contains abundant hydrated salts, such as gypsum, polyhalite or carnallite. Hydrated evaporite salts, when interacting with the igneous realm, are highly volatile and likely to decompose. They tend to release their water of crystallisation at temperatures many hundreds of degrees below the melting points of their anhydrous counterparts (Table 1).


In contrast, anhydrous salts, such as halite beds intruded by igneous dykes or sills, are much less reactive. At a local scale (measured in metres) with respect to an intrasalt-igneous interaction, there are a number of documented thermally-driven alteration styles, typically created by the intrusion of dolerite dykes and sills into cooler halite, or the outflow of extrusive igneous flows over cooler halite beds (Knipping and Herrmann, 1985; Knipping, 1989; Grishina et al, 1992, 1998; Gutsche, 1988; Steinmann et al., 1999; Wall et al., 2010). Hot igneous material interacts with somewhat cooler anhydrous salt masses, typically halite or anhydrite, to create narrow but distinct heat and mobile fluid-release envelopes(Figure 1), also reflected in the resulting recrystallised inclusion-modified salt textures (Figure 2).


Based on studies of inclusion chemistry and homogenization temperatures in fluid inclusions in bedded halite near intrusives, it seems that the extent of the influence of a dolerite sill or dyke in bedded salt is marked by fluid (brine)-inclusion migration. This is evidenced by the disappearance of chevron structures and consequent formation of clear (sparry) recrystallised halite, with a new set of higher-temperature brine inclusions located at intercrystal or polyhedral intersections. Such a migration envelope is documented in bedded Cambrian halites intruded by end-Permian dolerite dykes in the Tunguska region of Siberia (Figure 2; Grishina et al., 1992). There, as a rule of thumb, an alteration halo extends up to twice the thickness of the dolerite sill above the sill and almost the thickness of the sill below (Figure 1).

Four inclusion type associations were found in halite as a function of the ratio of the distance of the sample from the intrusion contact (d) to the thickness of the intrusion (h), i.e. d/h (Figure 2). Chevron structures with aqueous inclusions progressively disappear as d/h decreases; the disappearance of chevrons occurs at greater distances above than below the intrusive sill. At d/h < 5 above the sill, a low-density CO2 vapour phase appears in brine inclusions, at d/h < 2 H2S-bearing liquid-CO2 inclusions appear, sometimes associated with carbonaceous material and orthorhombic S8, and for d/h < 0.9, CaCl2, CaCl2.KCl and nCaCl2.n MgCl2 solids occur in association with free water and liquid CO2 inclusions, with H2S, SCO, and Sg. The d/h values marking the transitions outlined above are lower below the sills than above. The water content of the inclusions progressively decreases on approaching the sills, whereas their CO2 content and density increase. Carnallite, sylvite and calcium chloride can occur as solid inclusions in the two associations nearest to the sill for d/h<2. Carnallite and sylvite occur as daughter minerals in brine inclusions. The presence of carbon dioxide is taken to indicate fluid circulation and dissolution/recrystallisation phenomena induced by the basalt intrusions. The origin of carbon dioxide is likely related to carbonate dissolution during magmatism (see Salty Matters, Oct 31, 2016).


In some shallow locations, relatively rapid magma emplacement can lead to linear breakout trends outlined by phreatomagmatic or phreatic explosion craters. Such phreatic explosion craters have been imaged on the Tertiary seafloor horizons in parts of the North Sea (Figure 3; Wall et al., 2010). The dykes were emplaced into Paleozoic and Mesozoic sediments and have a common upper termination in Early Tertiary sediments. The dykes are part of the British Tertiary volcanic province emplaced some 58 Ma. These dykes are characterised by a narrow 0.5–2 km wide vertical disturbance of seismic reflections that have linear plan view geometry. Negative magnetic anomalies directly align with the vertical seismic disturbance zones and indicate the presence of underlying igneous material. Linear coalesced collapse craters are found above the dykes. The collapse craters formed above the dyke due to the release of volatiles at the dyke tip and resulting gaseous expansion and subsequent volume loss. According to Wall et al. (2010), the larger craters likely formed due to explosive phreatomagmatic interaction between magma and pore water. The linearly aligned collapse craters can be considered an Earth analogue to Martian pit chain craters.

A phreatic eruption, also called a phreatic explosion, ultravulcanian eruption or steam-blast eruption, occurs when magma heats ground or surface water and is a separate but related occurrence to a phreatomagmatic eruption. A phreatomagmatic deposit typically contains solid inclusions of magmatic (igneous) material, whereas debris tied to a phreatic deposit does not, but ties to the effects of juvenile and deeply circulated hydrothermal waters. Extreme temperatures associated with an emplaced magma (anywhere from 500 to 1,170 °C) can cause a near-instantaneous phase change to steam, so forming a phreatomagmatic deposit. That is, rapid heating results in an intense explosion made up of steam, water, ash, rock, and volcanic bombs. During the eruption of Mount St. Helens, hundreds of steam explosions preceded the1980 Plinian eruption of the volcano core. Many authors argue a less intense geothermal event results in a mud volcano, but there are many other active mud volcanoes worldwide that tie to compactional overpressure unrelated to any magma emplacement (Warren et al., 2011). As the published interpretation of aligned phreatic breakout structures illustrated in Figure 3 is based on seismic without well control, the explosion mechanism may be solely phreatic heating or phreatomagmatic.


Deposits of phreatic eruptions (as contrasted with a phreatomagmatic eruption) typically include steam and rock fragments without the inclusion of fragments derived from liquid magma, lava or volcanic ash. The temperature of the phreatic fragments can range from cool to incandescent. So if molten magma is present, the resulting explosive debris deposit is typically classified as a phreatomagmatic eruption. These eruptions can create broad, low-relief craters called maars. In contrast, phreatic explosions lack debris derived from molten (igneous) material, but emplacement can be accompanied by carbon dioxide or hydrogen sulfide gas emissions. CO2 can asphyxiate at sufficient concentration; H2S is a broad spectrum poison. A 1979 phreatic eruption on the island of Java killed 140 people, most of whom were overcome by poisonous gases. Phreatic eruptions, even if the deposit lacks igneous rock fragments, are typically classed as a type of volcanic eruptions because a phreatic eruption can force juvenile fluids to the surface. But when a phreatic explosion is related to an igneous feature intersecting an evaporite bed, the resultant textures show a contrast between heating of anhydrous and hydrous salts


Hydrous salt interactions in Germany

Textures created by an igneous intrusion into a variably-hydrated evaporite succession can be studied in the dyke-and sill-intruded halite levels exposed in the walls of potash mines of the Werra-Fulda district of Germany (Figure 4; Steinmann et al., 1999; Schofield et al., 2014). There, the Permian Zechstein salt series contains two important potash salt horizons (2-10m thick), which are mined at a depths ≈ 800 m, from within a 400m thick halite host (Figure 4a). In the later Tertiary, basaltic melts intruded these Zechstein evaporites, but it seems only a few dykes reached the Miocene landsurface. The basaltic melt ties to regional volcanic activity, some 10 to 25 Ma. Basalts exposed in the halite-dominant portions of the mine walls are typically subvertical dykes, rather than sills. The basaltic intervals intersect the salt over zones up to several kilometres wide (Figure 4b). However, correlations of individual dyke swarms, either between different mines, or between surface and subsurface outcrops is difficult.


From a paleogeographic perspective, the Werra-Fulda Basin is situated in a southern embayment of the European Zechstein Basin. It contains cyclic evaporites of the Werra Formation (Z1). In the Neuhof area, the evaporites of the Zechstein are underlain by siliciclastic rocks of the Permian Rotliegend interval. The higher Zechstein-cycles (Z2 – Z7), on top of the Werra Formation, consist of a siliciclastic succession with intercalated limestone and anhydrite layers (Strauch et al., 2018; Beer and Barnasch, 2018). The Werra Formation is dominated by rock salt with a thickness up to 300 m.

Two potash seams (Seam Hessen and Seam Thüringen) separate the rock salt of the Werra Formation into three distinct units (Figure 4b). Lower, Middle and Upper Werra rock salt). Seam Hessen mainly consists of hard salt (kieserite, sylvite, halite and anhydrite). It is overlain by several, potash mineral-bearing horizons which show a strong vertical and lateral heterogeneity and consist of kieserite, sylvite, carnallite, halite and anhydrite. Internally, three separate units are identified within the potash Seam Hessen (Figure 4). The “Wurmsalz”, a hard salt with up to four strongly folded anhydritic clay bands represents the lower part of Seam Hessen. The middle part consists of massive, kieserite-rich hard salt with abundant sylvite lenses (“Flockensalz”). The “Bändersalz”, a banded hard salt which is typically intercalated with brownish, halitic layers occurs in the upper part of Seam Hessen. Potash Seam Thüringen usually occurs around 50 m below Seam Hessen. Its lower part is dominated by a well-bedded hard salt with intercalated rock salt. Its upper part consists of a variety of rock types including carnallite, sylvite and hard salt.

In the Fulda region the thermally-driven release of water of crystallisation within particular Zechstein salt beds intersecting igneous dykes creates thixotropic or subsurface “peperite” textures in hydrated carnallitite ore layers, where heated water of crystallisation escaped from the hydrated-salt lattice. Dehydration-driven loss of mechanical strength focuses zones of magma entry into particular horizons in the salt mass, wherever hydrated salt layers were intersected (Figure 5b verses 5c). In contrast, dyke and sill margins are much sharper and narrower in zones of contact with anhydrous salt intervals (Figure 5a, d; Schofield et al., 2014).

Accordingly, away from the immediate vicinity of the direct thermal aureole, heated and overpressured dehydration waters can enter a former Zechstein carnallite halite bed, and drive the creation of extensive soft sediment deformation and peperite textures in the previous hydrated layer (Figure 5c, d). Mineralogically, sylvite and coarse recrystallised halite dominate the salt fraction in the peperite intervals/beds. These deformed beds formed within a hydrated salt bed and so differ from the conventional notion of volcanic peperites indicating water-saturated sediment interactions with very shallow dyke or sill emplacements.

Sylvite in these altered zones is a form of dehydrated carnallite, not a primary-textured salt. In the Fulda region, such altered zones and deformed units can extend along former carnallite layers to tens or even a hundred or more metres from the dyke feeder. Ultimately, the deformed potash bed passes laterally out into the unaltered bed, which can retain abundant inclusion-rich primary chevron halite and carnallite (Figure 5c versus 5d). That is, nearer the basalt dyke, the carnallite is transformed mainly into inclusion-poor halite and sylvite, the result of recrystallisation combined with incongruent flushing of warm saline fluids mobilised from the hydrated carnallite crystal lattice as it was heated and decomposed in response to nearby dyke emplacement. During such Miocene salt alteration/thermal metamorphism in the Fulda region, NaCl-rich diagenetic and juvenile fluids were mixed with fluids originating from thermally-mobilised crystallisation water in the carnallite as it converted to sylvite.

Nearer the basalt dyke, the carnallite is largely transformed into inclusion-poor halite and sylvite, the result of incongruent flushing of warm saline fluids mobilised from the hydrated carnallite crystal lattice as it was heated by dyke emplacement. During Miocene salt alteration/thermal metamorphism in the Fulda region, NaCl-fluids were mixed with fluids originating from thermally-mobilised crystallisation water in the carnallite, as it converted to sylvite. This brine mixture altered the basalts during post-intrusive cooling, an event which numerical models suggest was quite rapid (Knipping, 1989): a dyke of less than 0.5 m thickness probably cooled to temperatures less than 200°C within 14 days of dyke emplacement.

Worldwide, igneous dykes intersecting salt beds tend to widen to become sills in two zones: 1) along evaporite units within the halite mass that contain hydrated salts, such as carnallite or gypsum (Figure 5b, c) and, 2) where rising magma has ponded and so created laccoliths at the upper or lower halite contact with the adjacent nonsalt strata, or against a salt wall (Warren, 2016). The first alteration of the hydrated salt layer is a form of mineral alteration and recrystallisation in response to a pulse of released water/steam as dyke-driven heating forces the dehydration of hydrated salt layers. The second alteration is often folding and fluid-like disaggregation of the former, now dehydrated, layer in response to the mechanical strength contrast at a hydrated-nonhydrated salt-bed contact (Warren, 2016).

Surface expression of hydrated bedded salts interacting with magma in Dallol, Ethiopia

Local potash ores typify thermal sump depressions in the Dallol and Musley areas (Figure 6a, b, c, 7) where a similar set of subsurface destabilisation processes occurred when rising magma reached the levels of hydrated salts (kainite and carnallite beds) in the Houston Formation of the Danakhil depression fill (see Warren 2016 and Bastow et al. 2018 for more detailed discussion of the potash stratigraphy). To attain these hydrated salt levels the rising dyke swarm had passed relatively passively through the Lower Rocksalt Formation (Salty Matters, April 29, 2015). Emplacement of the magma/dykes into hydrated evaporites below the vicinity of what is now the Dallol Mound would have mobilised and deformed the hydrated potash salt level, converting carnallite to sylvite, kainite to bischofite and lesser kieserite, as well as creating widespread cavities filled with rising pressured volatiles carried by MgCl and KCl brines. Pressurisacreation of a cavernous network filled with volatiles at the level of the Houston Formation would have aided in forming the four-way dip closure now seen on the exposed and eroding salt beds that make up much of the Dallol Mound surface.


Once these hydrothermal cavities dissolved and breached the way to surface, the feeder brines cool and precipitate prograde salts such as halite, sylvite and bischofite. Such destabilisation has likely accommodated the emplacement of a basaltic sill at the level of the potash salts, in turn driving the uplift of the lake beds above this region outlined by the centripetal dips of the Dallol Mound. Mound-related uplift and hydrothermal activity then stimulate the formation of natural areas of ground collapse, sulphurous and acidic springs and fumaroles, along with the creation of water-filled chimneys and doline sags, filling with various hydrothermal salts, in the vicinity of the volcanic mound  (Figure 6).

That is this type of potash in the Dallol Mound region is hydrothermally reworked from the uplifted equivalents of the Houston Formation. Even today this hydrology is precipitating carnallitite (associated with bischofite and minor kieserite) in various hydrothermal brine pools atop and around the Dallol Mound, such as the carnallite-dominant Crescent deposit (Figure 7). These hydrothermal salts owe their origins to daylighting of pressurised fluid systems and cavities.


The last pressurised phreatic explosion crater formed in 1926. They were created by the volatile products of hydrated salt layers (Houston Fm) where these salts had come into contact with thermal aureoles or actual lithologies of newly emplaced dykes that had penetrated the underlying halite section. Volcanic rock fragments and other igneous debris have yet to make it to the surface in the Dallol Mound region, although active volcanic mounds and flows do cover the saltflat surface tens of kilometres to the south (Erte Alle ) and north. Based on the analogy exposed within the Zechstein-hosted potash mines of the Fulda region of Germany, it is likely that as well as creating at-surface brine pools, this hydrothermal dyke-related hydrology locally converts most subsurface carnallitite to a disturbed sylvinite bed at the level of contact with the Houston Fm.

Implications

It seems a "one-size-fits-all" model does not characterise magmatic interactions with massively bedded evaporites. Instead, there is a mineralogical control to the intensity of the interaction and the depth of thermal influence of recrystallisation and mobilisation textures. When a dyke-swarm intersects halite or anhydrite the thermally-driven recrystallisation and fluid migration halo is more limited, as outlined in Figure 1 and Figure 5a, d.

In contrast, when a dyke swarm intersects an interval containing hydrous salts such kainite, carnallite or gypsum, the heating drives the expulsion of the bound-water at decomposition temperatures much lower than the salts melting point (Table 1). Such hydrous-salt intervals devolatise, fluidise and flow, with the effects of the heating halo extending much further away from the heat source, driven in part by steam-driven hydrofracturing. On cooling, the resulting mineralogy in the highly-deformed bed is dominated by the anhydrous form of the devolatised salt, as in the sylvite unit after carnallite as seen in potash seams adjacent to dykes in the Fulda Region (Figures 5b, c).

Closer in to the heat source, the basalt that has moved in along the hydrous potash beds show abundant peperite textures (Figure 5c; Schofield et al., 2014). Actually, this is a unique form of peperite that is tied to beds of hydrous evaporite. It forms outside the usual scenario envisaged for peperite whereby molten igneous material interacts with wet sediment, with the water in the wet sediment held in interparticle pores.

The classic definition of a peperite is that it is a "genetic term applied to a rock formed essentially in situ by disintegration of magma intruding and mingling with unconsolidated or poorly consolidated, typically wet sediments. The term also refers to similar mixtures generated by the same processes operating at the contacts of lavas and other hot volcaniclastic deposits with such sediments" (Skilling et al. 2002).

In the case of the bedded hydrous salt intervals, before the intrusion of the igneous heat source, there was little to no free water, other than occasional brine inclusions in associated halite chevrons. What makes these hydrous-salt peperites interesting is that it is the igneous heating drives a mineralogic transformation in the hydrous salts that makes the formerly "dry" salt bed become "wet" sediment.

Before our work in the Fulda region (Schofield et al., 2014), the nature of igneous interactions with evaporites was understood to be mainly that documented by studies in areas with intrusives interacting with thick anhydrous halite and anhydrite beds. The heating haloes were seen as driving recrystallisation and brine migration over limited lateral distances of a few metres. However, the potash seam interactions in the Fulda region show this alteration distance can be much greater (hundreds of metres) id hydrous salt layers are heated.

The surface geology in the Dallol Mound region of Ethiopia shows an even more impressive set of igneous dyke hydrated salt interactions (Warren, 2016). There the potash interval known as the Houston Formation is a tens-of-metres thick section of hydrated salts below the upper halite unit and atop the lower halite. When the rising igneous dyke swarm rose to the level of Houston Formation, it drove a broad linear devolatisation zone in the dyke-heated alteration halo. This, in turn, forced the formation of the closed anticlinal uplift structure that is the Dallol mound. The release of MgCl2 during volatisation also explains phreatic breakout features that are outlined by at-surface collapse dolines with their hot (104-108°C) brine lakes and unusual bischofite (MgCl2) precipitates. Likewise, the same set of processes explains the occurrences of metres to tens of metres thick bischofite intervals that are intersected in cores in some of the potash exploration wells in the vicinity of Dallol Mound (pers. obs). These are likely cavity fill deposits formed as a byproduct of kainite and carnallite devolatisation sourced at the level of Houston Formation.

This set of more mobile brine fluid escape features has implications for nuclear waste storage in halite successions where a storage cavity may be in proximity to an interval of hydrous evaporite salts. Halite-hosted purpose-built caverns in thick evaporite intervals are one of the safest places in the world to store waste but perhaps not in parts of the salt succession that entrain beds of hydrous salts such as carnallite or kainite (Warren, 2017).

References

Bastow, I. D., A. D. Booth, G. Corti, D. Keir, C. Magee, C. A.-L. Jackson, J. Warren, J. Wilkinson, and M. Lascialfari, 2018, The development of late-stage continental breakup: Seismic reflection and borehole evidence from the Danakil Depression, Ethiopia: Tectonics, v. 37.

Beer, W., and L. Barnasch, in press, Werra-Fulda-Becken, SDGG- Monography.

Chambefort, I., J. H. Dilles, and A. J. R. Kent, 2008, Anhydrite-bearing andesite and dacite as a source for sulfur in magmatic-hydrothermal mineral deposits: Geology, v. 36, p. 719-722.

Grishina, S., J. Dubessy, A. Kontorovich, and J. Pironon, 1992, Inclusions in salt beds resulting from thermal metamorphism by dolerite sills (eastern Siberia, Russia): European Journal of Mineralogy, v. 4, p. 1187-1202.

Grishina, S., J. Pironon, M. Mazurov, S. Goryainov, A. Pustilnikov, G. Fonderflaas, and A. Guerci, 1998, Organic inclusions in salt - Part 3 - Oil and gas inclusions in Cambrian evaporite deposits from east Siberia - A contribution to the understanding of nitrogen generation in evaporite: Organic Geochemistry, v. 28, p. 297-310.

Gutsche, A., 1988, Mineralreaktionen und Stotransporte an einem Kontakt Basalt-Hartsalz in der Werra-Folge des Werkes Hattorf: Unpubl. diploma thesis, thesis, Georg-August-Universita, Gottingen.

Humphris, S. E., P. M. Herzig, D. J. Miller, J. C. Alt, K. Becker, D. Brown, G. Brugmann, H. Chiba, Y. Fouquet, J. B. Gemmell, G. G., M. D. Hannington, N. G. Holm, J. J. Honnorez, G. J. Iturrino, R. Knott, R. Ludwig, K. Nakamura, S. Petersen, A. L. Reysenbach, P. A. Rona, S. Smith, A. A. Sturz, M. K. Tivey, and X. Zhao, 1995, The internal structure of an active sea-floor massive sulphide deposit: Nature, v. 377, p. 713-716.

Knipping, B., 1989, Basalt intrusions in evaporites: Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences (Springer-Verlag), v. 24, p. 132 pp.

Knipping, B., and A. G. Hermann, 1985, Mineralreaktionen und Stoff transporte an einem Kontakt Basalt-Carnallitit im Kalisalzhorizont Thüringen der Werra-Serie des Zechsteins: Kali und Steinsalz, v. 9, p. 111-124.

Luhr, J. F., 2008, Primary igneous anhydrite: Progress since its recognition in the 1982 El ChichÛn trachyandesite: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v. 175, p. 394-407.

Schofield, N., I. Alsop, J. Warren, J. R. Underhill, R. Lehné, W. Beer, and V. Lukas, 2014, Mobilizing salt: Magma-salt interactions: Geology, v. 42, p. 599-602.

Skilling, I. P., J. D. L. White, and J. McPhie, 2002, Peperite: a review of magma–sediment mingling: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v. 114, p. 1-17.

Steinmann, M., P. Stille, W. Bernotat, and B. Knipping, 1999, The corrosion of basaltic dykes in evaporites: Ar-Sr-Nd isotope and rare earth elements evidence: Chemical Geology, v. 153, p. 259-279.

Strauch, B., M. Zimmer, A. Zirkler, S. Höntzsch, and A. M. Schleicher, 2018, The influence of gas and humidity on the mineralogy of various salt compositions – implications for natural and technical caverns: Advances in Geoscience, v. 45, p. 227-233.

Wall, M., J. Cartwright, R. Davies, and A. McGrandle, 2010, 3D seismic imaging of a Tertiary Dyke Swarm in the Southern North Sea, UK: Basin Research, v. 22, p. 181-194.

Warren, J. K., 2016, Evaporites: A compendium (ISBN 978-3-319-13511-3): Berlin, Springer, 1854 p.

Warren, J. K., 2017, Salt usually seals, but sometimes leaks: Implications for mine and cavern stabilities in the short and long term: Earth-Science Reviews, v. 165, p. 302-341.

Warren, J. K., A. Cheung, and I. Cartwright, 2011, Organic Geochemical, Isotopic and Seismic Indicators of Fluid Flow in Pressurized Growth Anticlines and Mud Volcanoes in Modern Deepwater Slope and Rise Sediments of Offshore Brunei Darussalam; Implications for hydrocarbon exploration in other mud and salt diapir provinces (Chapter 10), in L. J. Wood, ed., Shale Tectonics, v. 93: Tulsa OK, AAPG Memoir 93 (Proceedings of Hedberg Conference), p. 163-196.

Zimbelman, D. R., R. O. Rye, and G. N. Breit, 2005, Origin of secondary sulfate minerals on active andesitic stratovolcanoes: Chemical Geology, v. 215, p. 37-60.

 

Brine evolution and origins of potash - primary or secondary. Ancient potash ores: Part 3 of 3

John Warren - Monday, December 31, 2018

Introduction

In the previous two articles in this series on potash exploitation, we looked at the production of either MOP or SOP from anthropogenic brine pans in modern saline lake settings. Crystals of interest formed in solar evaporation pans and came out of solution as: 1) Rafts at the air-brine interface, 2) Bottom nucleates or, 3) Syndepositional cements precipitated within a few centimetres of the depositional surface. In most cases, periods of more intense precipitation tended to occur during times of brine cooling, either diurnally or seasonally (sylvite, carnallite and halite are prograde salts). All anthropogenic saline pan deposits examples can be considered as primary precipitates with chemistries tied to surface or very nearsurface brine chemistry.

In contrast, this article discusses ancient potash deposits where the chemistries and ore textures are responding to ongoing alteration processes in the diagenetic realm. Unlike the modern brine pans where brines chemistries and harvested mineralogies are controllable, at least in part, these ancient deposits show ore purities and distributions related to ongoing natural-process overprints.



Table 1 lists some modern and ancient potash deposits and prospects by dividing them into Neogene and Pre-Neogene deposits (listing is extracted and compiled from SaltWork® database Version 1.7). The Neogene deposits are associated with a time of MgSO4-enriched seawaters while a majority of the Pre-Neogene deposits straddle times of MgSO4 enrichment and depletion in the ocean waters.

Incongruent dissolution in burial

Many primary evaporite salts dissolve congruently in the diagenetic realm; i.e., the composition of the solid and the dissolved solute stoichiometrically match, and the dissolving salt goes entirely into solution (Figure 1a). This situation describes the typical subsurface dissolution of anhydrous evaporite salts such as halite or sylvite. However, some evaporite salts, typically hydrated salts, such as gypsum or carnallite, dissolve incongruently in the diagenetic realm, whereby the composition of the solute in solution does not match that of the solid (Figure 1b). This solubilisation or mineralogical alteration is defined by the transformation of the "primary solid" into a secondary solid phase, typically an anhydrous salt, and the loss of water formerly held in the lattice structure. The resulting solution generally carries ions away in solution.


More than a century ago, van't Hoff (1912) suggested that much subsurface sylvite is the result of incongruent solution of carnallite yielding sylvite and a Mg-rich solution. According to Braitsch (1971, p. 120), the incongruent alteration (dissolution) of carnallite is perhaps the most crucial process in the alteration of subsurface potash salts and the formation of diagenetic (secondary) sylvite.

Widespread burial-driven incongruent evaporite reactions in the diagenetic realm include the burial transition of gypsum to anhydrite (reaction 1)

CaSO4.2H2O --> CaSO4 + 2 H2O ... (1)

and the in-situ conversion of carnallite to sylvite via the loss of magnesium chloride in solution (reaction 2)

KMgCl3.6H2O --> KCl + Mg++ + 2Cl- + 6H2O ...(2)

Typically, a new solid mineral remains, and the related complex solubility equilibrium creates a saline pore water that may, in turn, drive further alteration or dissolution as it leaves the reaction site (Warren, Chapters 2 and 8). Specifically for ancient potash, reaction 2 generates magnesium and chloride in solution and has been used to explain why diagenetic bischofite and dolomite can be found in proximity to newly formed subsurface sylvite. Bischofite is a highly soluble salt and so is metastable in many subsurface settings where incongruent dissolution is deemed to have occurred, including bischofite thermal pool deposits in the Dallol sump in the Danakhil of Ethiopia (Salty Matters, May 1, 2015). In many hydrologically active systems, solid-state bischofite is flushed by ongoing brine crossflow and so help drive the formation of various burial dolomites. Only at high concentrations of MgCl2 can carnallite dissolve without decomposition.

Laboratory determinations

In the lab, the decomposition of carnallite in an undersaturated aqueous solution is a well-documented example of incongruent dissolution (Emons and Voigt, 1981; Xia et al., 1993; Hong et al., 1994; Liu et al., 2007; Cheng et al., 2015, 2016). When undersaturated water comes into contact with carnallite, the rhombic carnallite crystals dissolve and, because of the common ion effect, small cubic KCl crystals form in the vicinity of the dissolving carnallite. As time passes, the KCl crystals grow into larger sparry subhedral forms and the carnallite disappears.

Carnallite’s crystal structure is built of Mg(H2O)6 octahedra, with the K+ ions are situated in the holes of chloride ion packing meshworks, with a structural configuration similar to perovskite lattice types (Voigt, 2015). Potassium in the carnallite lattice can be substituted by other large single-valence ions like NH4+, Rb+, Cs+ or Li(H2O)+, (H3O)+ and Cl- by Br- and I-. These substitutions change the lattice symmetry from orthorhombic in the original carnallite to monoclinic.

When interpreting the genesis of ancient potash deposits and solutions, the elemental segregation in the lattice means trace element contents of bromide, rubidium and caesium in primary carnallite versus sylvite daughter crystals from incongruent dissolution can provide valuable information. For example, in a study by Wardlaw, (1968), a trace element model was developed for sylvite derived from carnallite that gave for Br and Rb concentration ranges of 0.10–0.90 mg/g and 0.01–0.18 mg/g, respectively. In a later study of sylvite derived by fresh-water leaching of magnesium chloride under isothermal conditions at 25 °C. Cheng et al. (2016), defined a model whereby primary sylvites precipitated from MgSO4-deficient sea water, gave Br and Rb concentration ranges of 2.89–3.54 mg/g and 0.017–0.02 mg/g, respectively (no evaporation occurred at saturation with KCl). In general, they concluded sylvite derived incongruently from carnallite would contain less Br and more Rb than primary sylvite (Figure 2; Cheng et al., 2016).


Subsurface examples

The burial-driven mechanism widely cited to explain the incongruent formation of sylvite from carnallite is illustrated in Figure 3 (Koehler et al., 1990). Carnallite precipitating from evaporating seawater at time 1 forms from a solution at 30°C and atmospheric (1 bar) pressure, and so plots as point A, which lies within the carnallite stability field (that is, it sits above the dashed light brown line). With subsequent burial, the pressure increases so that the line defining carnallite-sylvite boundary (solid dark brown line) moves to higher values of K. By time 2, when the pressure is at 1 Kbar (corresponds to a lithostatic load equivalent to 2-3 km depth), the buried carnallite is thermodynamically unstable and so is converting to sylvite + solution (as the plot field now lies in the sylvite + solution field (Figure 3). If equilibrium is maintained the carnallite reacts incongruently to form further sylvite and MgCl2-solution. Thus, provided the temperature does not rise substantially, increasing pressure as a result of burial will favour the breakdown of carnallite to sylvite. However, as burial proceeds, the temperature may become high enough to favour once again the formation of carnallite from sylvite + solution (that is the solution plot point from A moves toward the right-hand side of the figure and back into the carnallite stability field).


Sylvite, interpreted to have formed from incongruent dissolution of primary carnallite, is reported from the Late Permian Zechstein Formation of Germany (Borchert and Muir, 1964), Late Permian Salado Formation of New Mexico (Adams, 1970), Early Mississippian Windsor Group of Nova Scotia (Evans, 1970), Early Cretaceous Muribeca Formation of Brazil and its equivalents in the Gabon Basin, West Africa (Wardlaw, 1972a, b; Wardlaw and Nicholls, 1972; Szatmari et al., 1979; de Ruiter, 1979), Late Cretaceous of the Maha Sarakham Formation, Khorat Plateau, Thailand and Laos (Hite and Japakasetr, 1979), Pleistocene Houston Formation, Danakil Depression, Ethiopia (Holwerda and Hutchinson, 1968), and Middle Devonian Prairie Formation of western Canada (Schwerdtner, 1964; Wardlaw, 1968) (See Table 1).

This well-documented literature base supports a long-held notion that there is a problem with sylvite as a primary (first precipitate) marine bittern salt, especially if the mother seawater had ionic proportions similar to those present in modern seawater (see Lowenstein and Spencer, 1990 for an excellent, if 30-year-old, review). We know from numerous evaporation experiments, that sylvite does not crystallise during the evaporation of modern seawater at 25°C, except under metastable equilibrium conditions (Braitsch, 1971; Valyashko, 1972; Hardie, 1984). The sequence of bitterns crystallising from modern seawater bitterns was illustrated in the previous Salty Matters article in this series (see Figure 1 in October 31 2018).

Across the literature documenting sylvite-carnallite associations in ancient evaporites, the dilemma of primary versus secondary sylvite is generally solved in one of three ways. Historically, many workers interpreted widespread sylvite as a diagenetic mineral formed by the incongruent dissolution of carnallite (Explanation 1). Then there is the interpretation that some sylvite beds, perhaps associated with tachyhydrite, were precipitated in the evaporite bittern part of a basin hydrology that was fed by CaCl2-rich basinal hydrothermal waters (Explanation 2: see Hardie, 1990 for a good discussion    of this mechanism). Then there is the third, and increasingly popular explanation of primary or syndepositional sylvite at particular times in the chemical evolution of the world oceans (MgSO4-depleted oceans).


Changes in the relative proportions of magnesium, sulphur and calcium in the world’s oceans are well supported by brine inclusion chemistry of co-associated chevron halite (Figure 4). Clearly, there are vast swathes of times in the earth’s past when the chemistry of seawater changed so that MgSO4 levels were lower than today and it was possible that sylvite was a primary marine bittern precipitate (see Lowenstein et al., 2014 for an excellent summary).

In my opinion, there is good evidence that all three explanations are valid within their relevant geological contexts but, if used exclusively to explain the presence of ancient sylvite, the argument becomes somewhat dogmatic. I would say that that, owing to its high solubility, the various textures and mineralogical associations of carnallite/sylvite and sulphate bitterns found in ancient potash ore beds reflect various and evolving origins. Ambient textures and mineralogies are dependent on how many times and how pervasively in a potash sequence’s geological burial history an evolving and reactive pore brine chemistry came into contact with parts or all of the extent of highly reactive potash beds (Warren, 2000; 2010; 2016).

In my experience, very few ancient examples of economic potash show layered textures indicating primary precipitation on a brine lake floor, instead, most ancient sylvite ores show evidence of at least one episode of alteration. That is, various forms and textures in potash may dissolve, recrystallise and backreact with each other from the time a potash salt is first precipitated until it is extracted. The observed textural and mineralogical evolution of a potash ore association depends on how open was the hydrology of the potash system at various stages during its burial evolution. The alteration can occur syndepositionally, in brine reflux, or later during flushing by compactional or thermobaric subsurface waters or during re-equilibration tied to uplift and telogenesis. Tectonism (extensional and compactional) during the various stages of a basin’s burial evolution acts as a bellows driving fluid flow within a basin, so forcing and speeding up the focused circulation of potash-altering waters.

 

A similar, but somewhat less intense, textural evolution tied to incongruent alteration is seen in the burial history of other variably hydrated evaporite salts. For example, CaSO4 can flip-flop from gypsum to anhydrite and back again depending on temperature, pore fluid salinity and the state of uplift/burial. Likewise, with the more complicated double salt polyhalite, there are mineralogical changes related to whether it formed in a MgSO4 enriched or depleted world ocean and the associated chemistry of the syndepositional reflux brines across extensive evaporite platforms (for a more detailed discussion of polyhalite see Salty Matters, July 31, 2018). Kainite-kieserite-carnallite also show evidence of ongoing incongruent interactions. This means that, as in gypsum/anhydrite/polyhalite or kain ite/kieserite sequences, there will be primary and secondary forms of both carnallite and sylvite that can alternate during deposition, during burial and any deep meteoric flushing and then again with uplift. In Quaternary brine factories these same incongruent chemical relationships are what facilitate the production of MOP (sylvite) from a carnallitite feed or SOP from kainite/kieserite/schoenite feed (see articles 1 and 2 in this series).

 

To document the three end-members of ancient sylvite-carnallite decomposition/precipitation we will look at three examples; 1) Oligocene potash in the Mulhouse Basin where primary sylvite textures are commonplace, 2) Devonian potash ores in western Canada, where multiple secondary stages of alteration are seen, and 3) Igneous-dyke associated sylvite in east Germany where thermally-driven volatisation (incongruent melting) forms sylvite from dehydrated carnallite.


Oligocene Potash, Mulhouse Basin France

Moving backwards into deep time, this 34 Ma deposit contains some of the first indications of well preserved primary marine-fed sylvinite (MOP) textures exemplified by laterally-continuous mm-scale alternations of potash and halite layers and lamina (Figure 5a-c). Interestingly, all solid-state potash deposits laid down in the post-Oligocene period contain increased proportions of MgSO4 salts, making them much more difficult to economically mine and process (see Table 1 and Salty Matters, May 12, 2015)

From 1904 until 2002, potash was conventionally mined in France from the Mulhouse Basin (near Alsace, France). With an area of 400 km2, the Mulhouse Basin is the southernmost of a number of Lower Oligocene evaporite basins that occupied the upper Rhine Graben, which at that time was a narrow adiabatic-arid rift valley (Figure 6a). The graben was a consequence of the collision between European and African plates during the Paleogene. It is part of a larger intracontinental rift system across Western Europe that extended from the North Sea to the Mediterranean Sea, stretching some 300 km from Frankfurt (Germany) in the north, to Basel (Switzerland) in the south, with an average width of 35 km (Cendon et al., 2008). The southern extent of the graben is limited by a system of faults that place Hercynian massifs and Triassic materials into contact with the Paleogene filling. Across the north, a complex system of structures (including salt diapirs) put the basin edges in contact with Triassic, Jurassic and Permian materials. In the region of the evaporite basins, the Paleogene fill of the graben lies directly on the Jurassic basement. The sedimentary filling of this rift sequence is asymmetrical with the deeper parts located at the southwestern and northeastern sides of the Graben (Rouchy, 1997).


Palaeogeographical reconstructions place the potential marine seaway seepage feed to the north or perhaps also southeast of the Mulhouse Basin, while marginal continental conglomerates tend to preclude any contemporaneous hydrographic connection with Oligocene ocean water (Blanc-Valleron, 1991; Hinsken et al., 2007; Cendon et al., 2008). At the time of its hydrographic isolation, some 34 Ma, the basin was located 40° north of the equator. Total fill of Oligocene lacustrine/marine-fed sediments in the graben is some 1,700m thick. The saline stage is dominated by anhydrite, halite and mudstone. The main saline sequence is underlain by non-evaporitic Eocene continental mudstones, with lacustrine fossils and local anhydrite beds. Evaporite bed continuity in the northern part of the basin is disturbed by (Permian-salt cored) diapiric and or erosional/fault movement. Consequently, these northern basins are not considered suitable for conventional potash mining (Figure 6a).

The Paleogene fill of the basin is divided into 6 units; a pre-evaporitic series, Lower Salt Group (LSG), Middle Salt Group (MSG), an Upper Salt Group (USG - with potash), Grey Marls Fm., and the Niederroedern Fm (Figure 7; Cendon et al., 2008). The LSG and lower section of the MSG are interpreted as lacustrine in origin, based on the limited palaeontologic and geochemical data. However, based on the presence of Cenozoic marine nannoplankton, shallow water benthic foraminifera, and well-diversified dinocyst assemblages in the fossiliferous zone below Salt IV, Blanc-Valleron (1991) favours a marine influence near the top of the MSG, while recognising the ambiguity of marine proportions with brackish faunas. Many marine-seepage fed brine systems have salinities that allow halotolerant species to flourish in marine-fed basins with no ongoing marine hydrographic connection (Warren, 2011). According to Blanc-Valleron and Schuler (1997), the region experienced a Mediterranean climate with long dry seasons during Salt IV member deposition.


In detail, the Salt IV member is made up of some 210 m of evaporitic sequence, with two relatively thin potash levels (Ci and Cs). The stratigraphy associated with this potash zone is, from base to top (Figure 7):

S2 Unit: 11.5 m thick with distinct layers of organic-rich marls, often dolomitic, with dispersed anhydrite layers.

S1 Unit: 19 m thick, evenly-bedded and made up of alternating metre-scale milky (inclusion-rich) halite layers, with much thinner marls and anhydrite layers. Marls show a sub-millimetric lamination formed by micritic carbonate laminae alternating with clay, quartz, and organic matter-rich laminae. Hofmann et al. (1993a, b) interpreted these couplets as reflecting seasonal variations. Anhydrite occasionally displays remnant swallowtail ghost textures, which suggest that at least part of the anhydrite first precipitated as subaqueous gypsum. Halite shows an abundance of growth-aligned primary chevron textures, along with fluid-inclusion banding suggesting halite was subaqueous and deposited beneath shallow brine sheets (Lowenstein and Spencer, 1990).

S Unit: Is 3.7 m thick and consists of thin marl layers and anhydrite, similar to the S2 Unit, with a few thin millimetric layers of halite.

Mi Unit: With a thickness of 6 m, it is mostly halite with similar characteristics to the S1 Unit. Sylvite was detected in one sample, but its presence is probably related to the evolution of interstitial brines (Cendon et al., 2008).

Ci Unit (“Couche inférieure”): Is formed by 4 m of alternating marls/anhydrite, halite, and sylvite beds (Figure 7).

The Ti unit consists of alternating beds of halite, marl and anhydrite. The top of the interval is the T unit, which is similar to the S unit and consists of alternating beds of marl and anhydrite. Above this is the Ms or upper Marl, near identical to the lower marl Mi. The Mi is overlain by the upper potash bed (Cs), a thinner, but texturally equivalent, bed compared to the sylvinitic Ci unit.

Thus, the Oligocene halite section includes two thin, but mined, potash zones: the Couche inferieure (Ci; 3.9m thick), and Couche superieure (Cs; 1.6m thick), both occur within Salt IV of the Upper Salt group (Figures 5, 7).

Both potash beds are made up of stacked, thin, parallel-sided cm-dm-thick beds (averaging 8 cm thickness), which are in turn constructed of couplets composed of grey-coloured halite overlain by red-coloured sylvite (Figure 5b). Each couplet has a sharp base that separates the basal halite from the sylvite cap of the underlying bed. In some cases, the separation is also marked by bituminous partings. The bottom-most halite in each dm-thick bed consists of halite aggregates with cumulate textures that pass upward into large, but delicate, primary chevrons and cornets. Clusters of this chevron halite swell upward to create a cm-scale hummocky boundary with the overlying sylvite (Figure 5c; Lowenstein and Spencer, 1990).

The sylvite member of a sylvinite couplet consists of granular aggregates of small transparent halite cubes and rounded grains of red sylvite (with some euhedral sylvite hoppers) infilling the swales in the underlying hummocky halite (Figure 5b,c). The sylvite layer is usually thick enough to bury the highest protuberances of the halite, so that the top of each sylvite layer, and the top of the couplet, is flat. Dissolution pipes and intercrystalline cavities are noticeably absent, although some chevrons show rounded coigns. Intercalated marker beds, formed during times of brine pool freshening, are composed of a finely laminated bituminous shale, with dolomite and anhydrite.

The sylvite-halite couplets record combinations of unaltered settle-out and bottom-nucleated growth features, indicating primary chemical sediment accumulating in shallow perennial brine pools (Lowenstein and Spencer, 1990). Based on the crystal size, the close association of halites with sylvite layers, their lateral continuity and the manner in which sylvite mantles overlie chevron halites, the sylvites are interpreted as primary precipitates. Sylvite first formed at the air-brine surface or within the uppermost brine mass and then sank to the bottom to form well-sorted accumulations. As sylvite is a prograde salt it, like halite, probably grew during times of cooling of the brine mass (Figure 8a). These times of cooling could have been diurnal (day/night) or weather-front induced changes in the above-brine air temperatures. Similar cumulate sylvite deposits form as ephemeral bottom accumulations on the floor of modern Lake Dabuxum in China during its more saline phases.


The subsequent mosaic textural overprint seen in many of the Mulhouse sylvite layers was probably produced by postdepositional modification of the crystal boundaries, much in the same way as mosaic halite is formed by recrystallisation of raft and cumulate halite during shallow burial. Temperature-based inclusion studies in both the sylvite and the halites average 63°C, suggesting solar heating of surface brines as precipitation took place (Figure 8b; Lowenstein and Spencer, 1990). Similar high at-surface brine temperatures are not unusual in many modern brine pools, especially those subject to periodic density stratification and heliothermometry (Warren 2016; Chapter 2).

Mineralogically, potash evaporites in the Mulhouse Basin in the Rhine Graben (also known as the Alsatian (Alsace) or Wittelsheim Potash district) contain sylvite with subordinate carnallite, but lack the abundant MgSO4 salts characteristic of the evaporation of modern seawater. The Rhine graben formed during the Oligocene, via crustal extension, related to mantle upwelling. It was, and is, a continental graben typified by high geothermal gradients along its rift axis. In depositional setting, it is not dissimilar to pree-120,000-year potash fill stage in the Quaternary Danakil Basin or the Dead Sea during deposition of potash salts in the Pliocene Sedom Fm. The role of a high-temperature geothermal inflow in defining the CaCl2 nature of the potash-precipitating brines, versus a derivation from a MgSO4-depleted marine feed, is considered significant in the Rhine Graben deposits, but is poorly understood and still not resolved (Hardie, 1990; Cendón et al., 2008). World ocean chemistry in the Oligocene is on a shoulder between the MgSO4-depleted CaCl2-rich oceans of the Cretaceous and the MgSO4-enriched oceans of the Neogene (Figure 4).


Cendón et al. (2008) conclude brine reaction processes were the most important factors controlling the major-ion (Mg, Ca, Na, K, SO4, and Cl) evolution of Mulhouse brines (Figure 9a-d). A combined analysis of fluid inclusions in primary textures by Cryo-SEM-EDS with sulphate- d34S, d18O and 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios revealed likely hydrothermal inputs and recycling of Permian evaporites, particularly during the more advanced stages of evaporation that laid down the Salt IV member. Bromine levels imply an increasingly concentrated brine at that time (Figure 9a). The lower part of the Salt IV (S2 and S1) likely evolved from an initial marine input (Figure 9b-d).

Throughout, the basin was disconnected from direct marine hydrographic connection and was one of a series of sub-basins formed in an active rift setting, where tectonic variations influenced sub-basin interconnections and chemical signatures of input waters. Sulphate-d34S shows Oligocene marine-like signatures at the base of the Salt IV member (Figure 9c, d). However, enriched sulphate-d18O reveals the importance of synchronous re-oxidation processes.

As evaporation progressed, other non-marine or marine-modified inputs from neighbouring basins became more important. This is demonstrated by increases in K concentrations in brine inclusions and Br in halite, sulphate isotopes trends, and 87Sr/86Sr ratios (Figure 9b, c). The recycling (dissolution) of previously precipitated evaporites of Permian age was increasingly important with ongoing evaporation. In combination, this chemistry supports the notion of a connection of the Mulhouse Basin with basins situated north of Mulhouse. The brine evolution eventually reached sylvite precipitation. Hence, the chemical signature of the resulting brines is not 100% compatible with global seawater chemistry changes. Instead, the potash phase is tied to a hybrid inflow, with significant but decreasing marine input.

There was likely an initial marine source, but this occurred within a series of rift-valley basin depressions for which there was no direct hydrographic connection to the open ocean, even at the time the Middle Salt Member (potash-entraining) was first deposited (Cendon et al., 2008). That is, the general hydrological evolution of the primary textured evaporites in the Mulhouse basin sump is better explained as a restricted sub-basin with an initial marine-seepage stage. This gradually changed to ≈ 40% marine source near the beginning of evaporite precipitation, with the rest of hydrological inputs being non-marine. There was a significant contribution of solutes from recycled, in part diapiric, Permian evaporites, likely remobilised by the tectonics driving the formation of the rift valley (Hinsken et al., 2007; Cendon et al., 2008). The general proportion of solutes did not change substantially over the time of evaporite precipitation. However, as the basin restriction increased, the formerly marine inputs changed to continental, diapiric or marine-modified inputs, perhaps fed from neighbouring basins north of Mulhouse basin. As in the Ethiopian Danakhil potash-rift, it is likely brine interactions occurred both during initial and early post-depositional reflux overprinting of the original potash salt beds.


West Canadian potash (Devonian)

The Middle Devonian (Givetian) Prairie Evaporite Formation is a widespread potash-entraining halite sequence deposited in the Elk Point Basin, an early intracratonic phase of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB; Chipley and Kyser, 1989). Today, it is the world’s predominant source of MOP fertiliser (Warren, 2016). The flexure that formed the basin and its subsealevel accommodation space was a distal downwarp to, and driven by, the early stages of the Antler Orogeny (Root, 2001). Texturally and geochemically the potash layers in the basin show the effects of multiple alterations and replacements of its potash minerals, especially interactions between sylvite and carnallite in a variably recrystallised halite host.

Regionally halite constitutes a large portion of the four formations that make up the Devonian Elk Point Group (Figure 10): 1) the Lotsberg (Lower and Upper Lotsberg Salt), 2) the Cold Lake (Cold Lake Salt), 3) the Prairie Evaporite (Whitkow and Leofnard Salt), and 4) the Dawson Bay (Hubbard Evaporite). Today the remnants of the Middle Devonian Prairie Evaporite Formation constitute a bedded unit some 220 metres thick, which lies atop the irregular topography of the platform carbonates of the Winnipegosis Fm. Extensive solutioning of the various salts has given rise to an irregular thickness to the formation and the local absence of salt (Figure 11a).


The Elk Point Group was deposited within what is termed the Middle Devonian “Elk Point Seaway,” a broad intracratonic sag basin extending from North Dakota and northeastern Montana at its southern extent north through southwestern Manitoba, southern and central Saskatchewan, and eastern to northern Alberta (Figure 11a). Its Pacific coast was near the present Alberta-British Columbia border, and the basin was centred at approximately 10°S latitude. To the north and west the basin was bound by a series of tectonic ridges and arches; but, due to subsequent erosion, the true eastern extent is unknown (Mossop and Shetsen, 1994). In northern Alberta, the Prairie Evaporite is correlated with the Muskeg and Presqu’ile formations (Rogers and Pratt, 2017).

Hydrographic isolation of the intracratonic basin from its marine connection resulted in the deposition of a drawndown sequence of basinwide (platform-dominant) evaporites with what is a uniquely high volume of preserved potash salts deposited within a clayey halite host. The potash resource in this basin far exceeds that of any other known potash basin in the world.


Potash geology

Potash deposits mined in Saskatchewan are all found within the upper 60-70 m of the Prairie Evaporite Formation, at depths of more than 400 to 2750 metres beneath the surface of the Saskatchewan Plains. Within the Prairie Evaporite, there are four main potash-bearing members, in ascending stratigraphic order they are: Esterhazy, White Bear, Belle Plaine and Patience Lake members (Figure 11b). Each member is composed of various combinations of halite, sylvite, sylvinite, and carnallitite, with occurrences of sylvite versus carnallite reliably definable using wireline signatures (once the wireline is calibrated to core or mine control - Figure 12; Fuzesy, 1982).

The Patience Lake Member is the uppermost Prairie Evaporite member and is separated from the Belle Plaine by 3-12 m of barren halite (Holter, 1972). Its thickness ranges from 0-21 m and averages 12 m, its top 7-14 m is made up halite with clay bands and stratiform sylvite. This is the targeted ore unit in conventional mines in the Saskatoon and Lanigan areas and is the solution-mined target, along with the underlying Belle Plaine Member, at the Mosaic Belle Plaine potash facility. The Belle Plaine member is separated from the Esterhazy by the White Bear Marker beds made up of some 15 m of low-grade halite, clay seams and sylvinite. The Belle Plaine Member is more carnallite-prone than the Patience Lake member (Figure 12). It is the ore unit in the conventional mines at Rocanville and Esterhazy (Figure 11b) where its thickness ranges from 0-18 m and averages around 9 m. In total, the Prairie Evaporite Formation does not contain any significant MgSO4 minerals (kieserite, polyhalite etc.) although some members do contain abundant carnallite. This mineralogy indicates precipitation from a Devonian seawater/brine chemistry somewhat different from today’s, with inherently lower relative proportions of sulphate and lower Mg/Ca ratios (Figure 4).

The Prairie Evaporite Fm. is nonhalokinetic throughout the basin, it is more than 200 m thick in the potash mining district in Saskatoon and 140 m thick in the Rocanville area to the southeast (Figure 11a; Yang et al., 2009). The Patience Lake member is the main target for conventional mining near Saskatoon. The Esterhazy potash member rises close to the surface in the southeastern part of Saskatchewan near Rocanville and on into Manitoba. This is a region where the Patience Lake Member is thinner or completely dissolved (Figure 11b). Over the area of mineable interest in the Patience Lake Member, centred on Saskatoon, the ore bed currently slopes downward only slightly in a westerly direction, but deepens more strongly to the south at a rate of 3-9 m/km. Mines near Saskatoon are at depths approaching a kilometre and so are nearing the limits of currently economic shaft mining.

The main shaft for the Colonsay Mine, which took IMC Global Inc. more than five years to complete through a water-saturated sediment column, finally reached the target ore body at a depth of 960 metres. Such depths and a southerly dip to the ore means that the conventional shaft mines near Saskatoon define a narrow WNW-ESE band of conventional mining activity (Figure 11c). To the south potash is recovered from greater depths by solution mining; for example, the Belle Plaine operation leaches potash from the Belle Plaine member at a depth of 1800m.

The Prairie Evaporite typically thins southwards in the basin; although local thickening occurs where carnallite, not sylvite, is the dominant potash mineral (Worsley and Fuzesy, 1979). The Patience Lake member is mined at the Cory, Allan and Lanigan mines, and the Esterhazy Member is mined in the Rocanville area (Figure 11c). Ore mined from the 2.4 m thick Esterhazy Member in eastern Saskatchewan contain minimal amounts of insolubles (≈1%), but considerable quantities of carnallite (typically 1%, but up to 10%) and this reduces the average KCl grade value to an average of 25% K2O. The converse is true for ore mined from the Patience Lake potash member in western Saskatchewan near Saskatoon, where carnallite is uncommon in the Cory and Allan mines. The mined ore thickness is a 2.74-3.35 metre cut off near the top of the 3.66-4.57metre Prairie Lake potash member. Ore grade is 20-26% K2O and inversely related to thickness (Figure 12). The insoluble content is 4-7%, mostly clay and markedly higher than in the Rocanville mines.


A typical sylvinite ore zone in the Patience Lake member can be divided into four to six units, based on potash rock-types and clay seams (Figures 12, 13a; M1-M6 of Boys, 1990). Units are mappable and have been correlated throughout the PCS Cory Mine with varying degrees of success, dependent on partial or complete loss of section from dissolution. Potash deposition appears to have been early and related to short-term brine seaway cooling and syndepositional brine reflux. So the potash layering (M1-M6) is cyclic, expressed in the repetitive distribution of hematite and other insoluble minerals (Figure 13). Desiccation polygons, desiccation cracks, subvertical microkarst pits and chevron halite crystals indicate that the Patience Lake member that encompasses the potash ore was deposited in and just beneath a shallow-brine, salt-pan environment (Figure 13b; Boys, 1990; Lowenstein and Spencer, 1990; Brodlyo and Spencer, 1987; pers. obs).

Clay seams form characteristic thin stratigraphic segregations throughout the potash ore zone(s) of the Prairie Evaporite, as well as disseminated intervals, and constitute about 6% of the ore as mined. For example, the insoluble minerals found in the PCS Cory samples are, in approximate order of decreasing abundance: dolomite, clay [illite, chlorite (including swelling-chlorite/chlorite), and septechlorite, quartz, anhydrite, hematite, and goethite. Clay minerals make up about one-third of the total insolubles: other minor components include: potassium feldspar, hydrocarbons, and sporadic non-diagnostic palynomorphs (Figure 13; Boys, 1990).

In all mines, the clays tend to occur as long continuous seams or marker layers between the potash zones and are mainly composed of detrital chlorite and illite, along withauthigenic septechlorite, montmorillonite and sepiolite (Mossman et al., 1982; Boys, 1990). Of the two chlorite minerals, septechlorite is the more thermally stable. The septechlorite, sepiolite and vermiculite very likely originated as direct products of settle-out, syndepositional dissolution or early diagenesis under hypersaline conditions from a precursor that was initially eolian dust settling to the bottom of a vast brine seaway. The absence of the otherwise ubiquitous septechlorite from Second Red Beds west of the zero-edge of the evaporite basin supports this concept (Figure 9, 10).


Potash Textures

Texturally, at the cm-scale, potash salt beds in the Prairie Evaporite (both carnallitite and sylvinite) lack the lateral continuity seen in primary potash textures in the Oligocene of the Mulhouse Basin (Figure 14). Prairie potash probably first formed as syndepositional secondary precipitates and alteration products at very shallow depths just beneath the sediment surface. These early prograde precipitates were then modified to varying degrees by ongoing fluid flushing in the shallow burial environment. The cyclic depositional distribution of disseminated insolubles as the clay marker beds was possibly due to a combination of source proximity, periodic enrichment during times of brine freshening and the strengthening of the winds blowing detritals out over the brine seaway. Possible intra-potash disconformities, created by dissolution of overlying potash-bearing salt beds, are indicated by an abundance of residual hematite in clay seams with some cutting subvertically into the potash bed. Except in, and near, dissolution levels and collapse features, the subsequent redistribution of insolubles, other than iron oxides, is not significant.

In general, halite-sylvite (sylvinite) rocks in the Prairie Evaporite ore zones generally show two end member textures; 1) the most common is a recrystallised polygonal mosaic texture with individual crystals ranging from millimetres to centimetres and sylvite grain boundaries outlined by concentrations of blood-red halite (Figure 14a). 2) The other end member texture is a framework of euhedral and subhedral halite cubes enclosed by anhedral crystals of sylvite (Figure 14b). This is very similar to ore textures in the Salado Formation of New Mexico interpreted as early passive precipitates in karstic voids.

Petrographically, the halite-carnallite (carnallitite) rocks display three distinct textures. Most halite-carnallite rocks contain isolated centimetre-sized cube mosaics of halite enclosed by poikilitic carnallite crystals (Figure 14c); 1) Individual halite cubes are typically clear, with occasional cloudy crystal cores that retain patches of syndepositional growth textures (Lowenstein and Spencer, 1990). 2) The second texture is coarsely crystalline halite-carnallite with equigranular, polygonal mosaic textures. In zones where halite overlies bedded anhydrite, most of the halite is clear with only the occasional crystal showing fluid inclusion banding.

Bedded halite away from the ore zones generally retains a higher proportion of primary depositional textures typical of halite precipitation in shallow ephemeral saline pans (Figure 14d; Brodylo and Spencer, 1987). Crystalline growth fabrics, mainly remnants of vertically-elongate halite chevrons, are found in 50-90% of the halite from many intervals in the Prairie Evaporite. Many of the chevrons are truncated by irregular patches of clear halite that formed as early diagenetic cements in syndepositional karst.

In contrast, the halite hosting the potash ore layers lacks well-defined primary textures but is dominated by intergrown mosaics. From the regional petrology and the lower than expected Br levels in halite in the Prairie Evaporite Formation, Schwerdtner (1964), Wardlaw and Watson (1966) and Wardlaw (1968) postulated a series of recrystallisation events forming sylvite after carnallite as a result of periodic flushing by hypersaline solutions. This origin as a secondary precipitate (via incongruent dissolution) is supported by observations of intergrowth and overgrowth textures (McIntosh and Wardlaw, 1968), collapse and dissolution features at various scales and timings (Gendzwill, 1978; Warren 2017), radiometric ages (Baadsgaard, 1987) and palaeomagnetic orientations of the diagenetic hematite linings associated with the emplacement of the potash (Koehler, 1997; Koehler et al., 1997).

Dating of clear halite crystals in void fills within the ore levels shows that some of the exceptionally coarse and pure secondary halites forming pods in the mined potash horizons likely precipitated during early burial, while other sparry halite void fills formed as late as Pliocene-Pleistocene (Baadsgard, 1987). Even today, alteration and remobilisation of the sylvite and carnallite and the local precipitation of bischofite are ongoing processes, related to the encroachment of the contemporary dissolution edge or the ongoing stoping of chimneys fed by deep artesian circulation (pers obs.).


Fluid inclusion studies support the notion of primary textures (low formation temperatures in chevron halite in the Prairie evaporite and an associated thermal separation of non-sylvite and sylvite associated halite (Figure 15; Chipley et al., 1990). Most fluid inclusions found in primary, fluid inclusion-banded halite associated with the Prairie potash salts contain sylvite daughter crystals at room temperature or nucleate them on cooling (e.g. halite at 915 and 945 m depth in the Winsal Osler well; Lowenstein and Spencer, 1990). In contrast, no sylvite daughter crystals have been observed in fluid inclusions outlining primary growth textures from chevron halites away from the potash deposits.

The data illustrated as Figure 15 clearly show that inclusion temperatures in primary halite chevrons are cooler than those in halites collected in intervals nearer the potash levels. Sylvite daughter crystal dissolution temperatures from fluid inclusions in the cloudy centres of halite crystals associated with potash salts are generally warmer (Brodlyo and Spencer, 1987; Lowenstein and Spencer, 1990). Sylvite and carnallite daughter crystal dissolution temperatures from fluid inclusions in fluid inclusion banded halite from bedded halite-carnallite are the hottest. This mineralogically-related temperature schism establishes that potash salts occur in stratigraphic intervals in the halite where syndepositional surface brines were warmer. In the 50° - 70°C temperature range there could be overlap with heliothermal brine lake waters. Even so, these warmer potash temperatures imply parent brines would likely be moving via a shallow reflux drive and are not the result of primary bottom nucleation (in contrast to primary sylvite in the Mulhouse Basin). Whether the initial Prairie reflux potash precipitate was sylvite or carnallite is open to interpretation (Lowenstein and Hardie, 1990).


Fluid evolution from mineral and isotope chemistry

Analysis of subsurface waters from various Canadian potash mines and collapse anomalies in the Prairie Evaporite suggest that, after initial potash precipitation, a series of recrystallising fluids accessed the evaporite levels at multiple times throughout the burial history of the Prairie Formation (Chipley, 1995; Koehler, 1997; Koehler et al., 1997). Likewise, the isotope systematics and K-Ar ages of sylvite in both halite and sylvite layers indicate that the Prairie Evaporite was variably recrystallised during fluid overprint events (Table 2; Figure 16). These event ages are all younger than original deposition (≈390Ma) and likely correspond to ages of various tectonic events that influenced subsurface hydrology along the western margin of North America.


Chemical compositions of inclusion fluids in the Prairie Evaporite, as determined by their thermometric properties, reveal at least two distinct waters played a role in potash formation: a Na-K-Mg-Ca-Cl brine, variably saturated with respect to sylvite and carnallite; and a Na-K-Cl brine (Horita et al., 1996). That is, contemporary inclusion water chemistry is a result in part of ongoing fluid-rock interaction. The ionic proportions in some halite samples are not the result of simple evaporation of seawater to the sylvite bittern stage (Figure 17a; Horita et al., 1996). There is a clear separation of values from chevron halites in samples from the Lanigan and Bredenbury (K-2 area) mines, which plot closer to the concentration trend seen in halite from modern seawater and values from clear or sparry halite. The latter encompass much lower K and higher Br related to fractionation tied to recrystallisation. Likewise, the influence of ongoing halite and potash salt dissolution is evident in the chemistry of shaft and mine waters with mine level waters showing elevated Mg and K values, (Figure 17b; Wittrup and Kyser, 1990; Chipley, 1995). What is more the mine waters of today show  substantial overlap with waters collected more than thirty years ago (Jensen et al., 2006)


This notion of ongoing fluid-rock interaction controlling the chemistry of mine waters is supported by dD and d18O values of inclusion fluids in both halite and sylvite, which range from -146 to 0‰ and from -17.6 to -3.0‰, respectively (Figure 18). Most of the various preserved isotope values are different from those of evaporated seawater, which should have dD and d18O values near 0‰.

Furthermore, the dD and d18O values of inclusion fluids are probably not the result of precipitation of the evaporite minerals from a brine that was a mixture of seawater and meteoric water. The low latitude position of the basin during the Middle Devonian (10-15° from the equator), the required lack of meteoric water to precipitate basinwide evaporites, and the expected dD and d18O values of any meteoric water in such a setting, make this an unlikely explanation. Rather, the dD and d18O values of inclusion fluids in the halites reflect ambient and evolving brine chemistries as the fluids in inclusions in the various growth layers were intermittently trapped during the subsurface evolution of the Prairie Formation in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. They also suggest that periodic migration of nonmarine subsurface water was a significant component of the crossflowing basinal brines throughout much of the recrystallisation history (Chipley, 1995).

Prairie carnallite-sylvite alteration over time

Ongoing alteration of carnallite to sylvite and the reverse reaction means a sylvite-carnallite bed must be capable of gaining or losing fluid at the time of alteration. That is, any reacting potash beds must be permeable at the time of the alteration. By definition, there must be fluid egress to drive incongruent alteration of carnallite to sylvite or fluid ingress to drive the alteration of sylvite to carnallite. There can also be situations in the subsurface where the volume of undersaturated fluid crossflow was sufficient to remove (dissolve) significant quantities of the more soluble evaporite salts. Many authors looking at the Prairie evaporite argue that the fluid access events during the alteration of carnallite to sylvite or the reverse, or the complete leaching of the soluble potash salts was driven by various tectonic events (Figure 16). In the early stages of burial alteration (few tens of metres from the landsurface) the same alteration processes can be driven by varying combinations of brine reflux, prograde precipitation and syndepositional karstification, all driven by changes in brine level and climate, which in turn may not be related to tectonism (Warren, 2016; Chapters 2 and 8 for details).

In the potash areas of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, the notion of 10-100 km lateral continuity is a commonly stated precept for both sylvinite and carnallitite units across the extent of the Prairie Evaporite. But when the actual distribution and scale of units are mapped based on mined intercepts, there are numerous 10-100 metre-scale discontinuities (anomalies) present indicating fluid ingress or egress (Warren, 2017).


Sometimes ore beds thin and alteration degrades the ore level (Section A-A1-A2), other times these discontinuities can locally enrich sylvite ore grade (B-B1; Figure 19). Discontinuities or salt anomalies are much more widespread in the Prairie evaporite than mentioned in much of the potash literature (Figure 19). Mining for maintenance of ore grade shows that unexpectedly intersecting an anomaly in a sylvite ore zone can have a range of outcomes ranging from the inconsequential to the catastrophic, in part because there is more than one type of salt anomaly or “salt horse" (Warren, 2017).


Figure 20 summarises what are considered the three most common styles of salt anomaly in the sylvite ore beds of the Prairie Evaporite, namely 1) Washouts, 2) Leach anomalies, 3) Collapse anomalies. These ore bed disturbances and their occurrence styles are in part time-related. Washouts are typically early (eogenetic) and defined as... “salt-filled V- or U-shaped structures, which transect the normal bedded sequence and obliterate the stratigraphy” (Figure 20a; Mackintosh and McVittie, 1983, p. 60). They are typically enriched in, or filled by, insoluble materials in their lower one-third and medium-coarse-grained sparry halite in the upper two thirds. Up to several metres across, when traced laterally they typically pass into halite-cemented paleo-sinks and cavern networks (e.g. Figure 20b). Most washouts likely formed penecontemporaneous to the potash beds they transect, that is, they are preserved examples of synkarst, with infilling of the karst void by a slightly later halite cement. They indicate watertable lowering in a potash-rich saline sump. This leaching was followed soon after by a period of higher watertables and brine saturations, when halite cements occluded the washouts and palaeocaverns. Modern examples of this process typify the edges of subcropping and contemporary evaporite beds, as about the recently exposed edges of the modern Dead Sea. As such, “washouts” tend to indicate relatively early interactions of the potash interval with undersaturated waters, they may even be a part of the syndepositional remobilisation hydrology that focused, and locally enriched, potash ore levels.

In a leach anomaly zone, the stratabound sylvinite ore zone has been wholly or partially replaced by barren halite, without significantly disturbing the normal stratigraphic sequence (clay marker beds) which tend to continue across the anomaly (Figure 20b). Some loss of volume or local thinning of the stratigraphy is typical in this type of salt anomaly. Typically saucer-shaped, they have diameters ranging from a few metres up to 400m. Less often, they can be linear features that are up to 20 m wide and 1600m long. Leach zones can form penecontemporaneously due to depressions and back-reactions in the ore beds, or by later low-energy infiltration of Na-saturated, K-undersaturated brines. The latter method of formation is also likely on the margins of collapse zones, creating a hybrid situation typically classified as a leach-collapse anomaly (Mackintosh and McVittie, 1983; McIntosh and Wardlaw, 1968).

Of the three types of salt anomaly illustrated, leach zone processes are the least understood. Historically, when incongruent dissolution was the widely accepted interpretation for loss of unit thickness in the Prairie Evaporite, many leach anomalies were considered metasomatic. Much of the original metasomatic interpretation was based on decades of detailed work in the various salt mines of the German Zechstein Basin. There, in an endemic halokinetic terrane, evaporite textures were considered more akin to metamorphic rocks, and the term metasomatic alteration was commonly used when explaining leach anomalies (Bochert and Muir, 1964, Braitsch, 1971). In the past two decades, general observations of the preservation of primary chevron halite in most bedded evaporites away from the potash layers in the Prairie Evaporite have led to reduced use of notions of widespread metamorphic-like metasomatic or solid-state alteration processes in bedded evaporites. There is just too much preserved primary texture in the bedded salt units adjacent to potash beds to invoke pervasive burial metasomatism of the Prairie Evaporite.


So how do leach anomalies, as illustrated in Figure 20b, occur in nonhalokinetic settings? One possible explanation is given by the depositional textures documented in anomalies in the Navarra Potash Province (Figure 21). There, the underlying and overlying salt stratigraphy is contiguous, while the intervening sylvite passed laterally into a syndepositional anomaly or “salt horse” created by an irregular topography on the salt pan floor prior to the deposition of onlapping primary sylvinite layers (see Warren 2016, 2017 for detailed discussion)

On the other hand, in halokinetic situations (which characterises much Zechstein salt) solid-state alteration via inclusion related migration in flowing salt beds is a well-documented set of texture-altering processes (diffusion metasomatism). Most workers in such halokinetic systems would agree that there must have been an original stratiform potassium segregation present during or soon after deposition related to initial precipitation, fractional dissolution and karst-cooling precipitation. But what is controlling potassium distribution now in the Zechstein salts is a recrystallised and remobilised set of textures, which preserve little or no crystal-scale evidence of primary conditions (Warren, 2016; Chapter 6). The complex layering in such deposits may preserve a broad depositional stratigraphy, but the decimetre to metre scale mineral distributions are indications of complex interactions of folds, overfolds, and disaggregation with local flow thickening. We shall return to this discussion of Zechstein potash textures in the next section dealing with devolatisation of hydrated salts such as carnallite. in zones of local heating

Collapse zones in the Prairie Evaporite are characterized by a loss of recognizable sylvinite ore strata, which is replaced by less saline brecciated, recemented and recrystallized material, with the breccia blocks typically made of the intrasalt or roof lithologies (Figure 20c), so angular fragments of the Second Red beds and dolostones of the Dawson Bay Formation are the most conspicuous components of the collapse features in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. When ore dissolution is well developed, all the halite can dissolve, along with the potash salts, and the overlying strata collapse into the cavity (these are classic solution collapse features). Transitional leached zones typically separate the collapsed core from normal bedded potash. Such collapse structures indicate a breach of the ore layers by unsaturated waters, fed either from below or above. For example, in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, well-developed collapse structures tend to occur over the edges and top Devonian mud mounds, while in the New Mexico potash zone the collapse zones are related to highs in the underlying Capitan reef trend (Warren, 2017). Leaching fluids may have come from below or above to form collapse structures at any time after initial deposition. When connected to a water source, these are the subsurface features that when intersected can quickly move the mining operation out of the salt into an adjacent aquifer system, a transition that led to flooding in most of the mine-lost operations listed earlier.

Identifying at the mine scale the set of processes that created a salt anomaly in a sylvite bed also has implications in terms of its likely influence on mine stability whatever decision is made on how to deal with it as part of the ongoing mine operation (Warren, 2016, 2017). Syndepositional karst fills and leach anomalies are least likely to be problematic if penetrated during mining, as the aquifer system that formed them is likely no longer active. In contrast, penetration or removal of the region around a salt-depleted collapse breccia may lead to uncontrollable water inflows and ultimately to the loss of the mine.

Unfortunately, in terms of production planning, the features of the periphery of a leach anomaly can be similar if not identical to those in the alteration halo that typically forms about the leached edge a collapse zone. The processes of sylvite recrystallisation that define the edge of collapse anomaly can lead to local enrichment in sylvite levels, making these zones surrounding the collapse core attractive extraction targets (Boys 1990, 1993). Boundaries of any alteration halo about a collapse centre are not concentric, but irregular, making the prediction of a feature’s geometry challenging, if not impossible. The safest course of action is to avoid mining salt anomalies, but longwall techniques make this difficult and so they must be identified and dealt with (see Warren 2017).


Cooking sylvite: Dykes & sills in potash salts

 

In addition to; 1) primary sylvite and 2) sylvite/carnallite alteration via incongruent transformation in burial, there is a third mode of sylvite formation related to 3) igneous heating driving devolatisation of carnallitite, which can perhaps be considered a form of incongruent melting (Warren, 2016). And so, at a local scale (measured in metres to tens of metres) in potash beds cut by igneous intrusions, there are a number of documented thermally-driven alteration styles and thermal haloes. Most are created by the intrusion of hot doleritic or basaltic dykes and sills into cooler salt masses, or the outflow of extrusive igneous flows over cooler salt beds (Knipping, 1989; Grishina et al, 1992, 1998; Gutsche, 1988; Steinmann et al., 1999; Wall et al., 2010). Hot igneous material interacts with somewhat cooler anhydrous salt masses to create narrow, but distinct, heat and mobile fluid-release envelopes, also reflected in the resulting salt textures. At times, relatively rapid magma emplacement can lead to linear breakout trends outlined by phreatomagmatic explosion craters, as imaged in portions of the North Sea (Wall et al., 2010) and the Danakhil/Dallol potash beds in Ethiopia (Salty Matters, May 1, 2015).

Based on studies of inclusion chemistry and homogenization temperatures in fluid inclusions in bedded halite near intrusives, it seems that the extent of the influence of a dolerite sill or dyke in bedded salt is marked by fluid-inclusion migration, evidenced by the disappearance of chevron structures and consequent formation of clear halite with a different set of higher-temperature inclusions. Such a migration envelope is well documented in bedded Cambrian halites intruded by end-Permian dolerite dykes in the Tunguska region of Siberia (Grishina et al., 1992).

Defining h as the thickness of the dolerite intrusion in these salt beds, and d as the distance of the halite from the edge of the intrusion, then the disappearance of chevrons occurs at greater distances above than below the intrusive sill. For d/h < 0.9 below the intrusion, CaCl2, CaCl2, KCl and nCaCl2, mMgCl2 solids occur in association with water-free and liquid-CO2 inclusions, with H2S, SCO and orthorhombic or glassy S8. For a d/h of 0.2-2 above the intrusion, H2S-bearing liquid-CO2 inclusions are typical, with various amounts of water. Thus, as a rule of thumb, an alteration halo extends up to twice the thickness of the dolerite sill above the sill and almost the thickness of the sill below (Figure 22).

In a series of autoclavation laboratory experiments, Fabricius and Rose-Hampton (1988) found that; 1) at atmospheiric pressure carnallite melts incongruently to sylvite and hydrated MgCl2 at a temperature of 167.5°C. 2) the melting/transformation temperature increase to values in excess of 180°C as the pressure increases (Figure 23).


A similar situation occurs in the dyke-intruded halite levels exposed in the mines of the Werra-Fulda district of Germany (Steinmann et al., 1999; Schofield, et al., 2014). There the Herfa-Neurode potash mine is located in the Werra-Fulda Basin in the Hessian district of central Germany (Figure 24a). The targeted ore levels consist of the carnallite-rich Kaliflöz Hessen (K1H) and Kaliflöz Thüringen (K1Th) intervals, which form part of the Zechstein 1 (Z1) bedded Werra salt succession (Warren, 2016). In the mine the K1H and K1Th units range in thickness from 2 m to 10 m, are generally subhorizontal and occur at a depth of 650–710 m below the present-day surface.


In the later Tertiary, basaltic melts intruded these Zechstein evaporites as numerous sub-vertical dykes, but only a few dykes attained the Miocene landsurface. Basaltic melt production was related to regional volcanic activity some 10 to 25 Ma. Basalts exposed in the mine walls, where it cuts non-hydrous units of halite or anhydrite, are typically subvertical dykes, rather than subhorizontal sills. The basalts are phonolitic tephrites, limburgites, basanites and olivine nephelinites. Dyke margins are usually vitrified, forming a microlitic limburgite glass along dyke edges in contact with halite (Figure 24b; Knipping, 1989). At the contact on the evaporite side of the glassy rim, there is a cm-wide carapace of high-temperature salts (mostly anhydrite and ferroan carbonates). Further out, the effect of the high-temperature envelope is denoted by transitions to clear halite, with higher temperature fluid inclusions (Knipping 1989). All of this metre-scale alteration is an anhydrous alteration halo, the halite did not melt (melting temperature of 804°C), rather than migrating, the fluid driving recrystallisation was mostly from entrained brine/gas inclusions. The dolerite/basalt interior of the basaltic dyke is likewise altered and salt soaked, with clear, largely inclusion-free halite typically filling vesicles in the basalt.

Heating of hydrated (carnallitic) salt layers, adjacent to a dyke or sill, tends to drive off the water of crystallisation (chemical or hydration thixotropy) at much lower temperatures than that at which anhydrous salts, such as halite or anhydrite, thermally melt (Figure 24c; Table 3). For example, in the Fulda region, the thermally-driven release of water of crystallisation within carnallitic beds creates thixotropic or subsurface “peperite” textures as carnallitite alters to sylvinite layers. These are layers where heated water of crystallisation escaped from the hydrated-salt lattice. Dehydration-driven loss of mechanical strength focuses zones of magma entry into particular subhorizontal horizons in the salt mass, wherever hydrated salt layers were present. In contrast, dyke and sill margins are much sharper and narrower in zones of contact with anhydrous salt intervals and the intrusive is sub-vertical to steeply dipping (Figure 24b versus 24c).

Accordingly, away from the immediate vicinity of the direct thermal aureole, heated and overpressured dehydration waters can enter carnallite halite bed, and drive the creation of extensive soft sediment deformation and peperite textures in hydrated layer (Figure 24c). Mineralogically, sylvite and coarse recrystallised halite dominate the salt fraction in the peperite intervals of the Herfa-Neurode mine. Sylvite in the altered zone is a form of dehydrated carnallite, not a primary-textured salt. Across the Fulda region, such altered zones and deformed units can extend along former carnallite layer to tens or even a hundred or more metres from the dyke feeder. Ultimately, the deformed potash bed passes back out into the unaltered bed, which retains abundant inclusion-rich halite and carnallite (Schofield et al., 2014).

That is, nearer the basalt dyke, the carnallite is largely transformed into inclusion-poor halite and sylvite, the result of incongruent flushing of warm saline fluids mobilised from the hydrated carnallite crystal lattice as it was heated by dyke emplacement. During Miocene salt alteration/thermal metamorphism in the Fulda region, NaCl-fluids were mixed with fluids and gases originating from thermally-mobilised crystallisation water in the carnallite, as it converted to sylvite. This brine/gas mixture altered the basalts during post-intrusive cooling, an event which numerical models suggest was quite rapid (Knipping, 1989): a dyke of less than 0.5 m thickness probably cooled to temperatures less than 200°C within 14 days of dyke emplacement.

The contrast in alteration extent between anhydrous and hydrous salt layers shows alteration effects are minimal wherever the emplacement temperature of the magma is below that of the anhydrous salt body as it is next to a basalt dyke. If this is the mechanism driving entry of igneous-related volatiles (gases and liquids) into a salt body, then the distribution of products (including CO2) will be highly inhomogeneous and related to the minerally of the salt unit adjacent to the intrusive. Worldwide, dykes intersecting salt beds tend to widen to become sills in two zones: 1) along evaporite units within the halite mass that contain hydrated salts, such as carnallite or gypsum (Figure 24c) and, 2) where rising magma has ponded and so created laccoliths at the upper or lower halite contact with the adjacent nonsalt strata or against a salt wall (Figure 22 vs 24). The first is a response to a pulse of released water as dyke-driven heating forces the dehydration of hydrated salt layers. The second is a response to the mechanical strength contrast at the salt-nonsalt contact.

In summary, sylvite formed from a carnallite precursor during Miocene salt alteration/thermal metamorphism in the Fulda region, NaCl-fluids were mixed with fluids originating from thermally-mobilised crystallisation water in the carnallite, as it converted to sylvite. This brine mixture altered the basalts during post-intrusive cooling, an event which numerical models suggest was quite rapid (Knipping, 1989): a dyke of less than 0.5 m thickness probably cooled to temperatures less than 200°C within 14 days of dyke emplacement.

How do we produce potash salts?

 

Over this series of three articles focused on current examples of potash production, we have seen there are two main groups of potash minerals currently utilised to make fertiliser, namely, muriate of potash (MOP) and sulphate of potash (SOP). MOP is both mined (generally from a Pre-Neogene sylvinite ore) or produced from brine pans (usually via processing of a carnallitite slurry). In contrast, large volumes of SOP are today produced from brine pans in China and the USA but with only minor production for solid-state ore targets. Historically, SOP was produced from solid-state ores in Sicily, the Ukraine, and Germany but today there are no conventional mines with SOP as the prime output in commercial operation (See Salty Matters, May 12, 2015).

The MgSO4-enriched chemistry of modern seawater makes the economic production of potash bitterns from a seawater-feed highly challenging. Today, there is no marine-fed plant anywhere in the world producing primary sylvite precipitates. However, sylvite is precipitating from a continental brine feed in salt pans on the Bonneville salt flat, Utah. There, a brine field, drawing shallow pore waters from saltflat sediments, supplies suitably low-MgSO4 inflow chemistry to the concentrator pans. Sylvite also precipitates in solar evaporator pans in Utah that are fed brine circulated through the abandoned workings of the Cane Creek potash mine (Table 1).

Large-scale production of MOP fertiliser from potash precipitates created in solar evaporation pans is taking place in perennially subaqueous saline pans of the southern Dead Sea and the Qaidam Basin. In the Dead Sea, the feed brine is pumped from the waters of the northern Dead Sea basin, while in the Qaidam sump the feed is from a brine field drawing pore brines with an appropriate mix of river and basinal brine inputs. In both cases, the resulting feed brine to the final concentrators is relatively depleted in magnesium and sulphate. These source bitterns have ionic proportions not unlike seawater in times of ancient MgSO4-depleted oceans. Carnallitite slurries, not sylvinite, are the MOP precipitates in pans in both regions. When feed chemistry of the slurry is low in halite, then the process to recover sylvite is a cold crystallisation technique. When halite impurity levels in the slurry are higher, sylvite is manufactures using a more energy intensive, and hence more expensive, hot crystallisation technique. Similar sulphate-depleted brine chemistry is used in Salar Atacama, where MOP and SOP are recovered as byproducts of the production of lithium carbonate brines.

Significant volumes of SOP are recovered from a combination of evaporation and cryogenic modification of sulfate-enriched continental brines in pans on the edge of the Great Salt Lake, Utah, and Lop Nur, China. When concentrated and processed, SOP is recovered from the processing of a complex series of Mg-K-SO4 double salts (schoenitic) in the Odgden pans fed brines from the Great Salt Lake. The Lop Nur plant draws and concentrates pore waters from a brine field drawing waters from glauberite-polyhalite-entraining saline lake sediments.

All the Quaternary saline lake factories supply less than 20% of the world's potash; the majority comes from the conventional mining of sylvinite ores. The world's largest reserves are held in Devonian evaporites of the Prairie Evaporite in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. Textures and mineral chemistry show that the greater volume of bedded potash salts in this region is not a primary sylvite precipitate. Rather the ore distribution, although stratiform and defined by a series of clay marker beds, actually preserves the effects of multiple modifications and alterations tied to periodic egress and ingress of basinal waters. Driving mechanisms for episodes of fluid crossflow range from syndepositional leaching and reflux through to tectonic pumping and uplift (telogenesis). Ore distribution and texturing reflect local-scale (10-100 metres) discontinuities and anomalies created by this evolving fluid chemistry. Some alteration episodes are relatively benign in terms of mineralogical modification and bed continuity. Others, generally tied to younger incidents (post early Cretaceous) of undersaturated crossflow and karstification, can have substantial effects on ore continuity and susceptibility to unwanted fluid entry. In contrast, ore textures and bed continuity in the smaller-scale sylvinite ores in the Oligocene Mulhouse Basin, France, indicate a primary ore genesis.

What makes it economic?

Across the Quaternary, we need a saline lake brine systems with the appropriate brine proportions, volumes and climate to precipitate the right association of processable potash salts. So far, the price of potash, either MOP or SOP, and the co-associated MgSO4 bitterns, precludes industrial marine-fed brine factories.

In contrast, to the markedly nonmarine locations of potash recovery from the Quaternary sources, almost all pre-Quaternary potash operations extract product from marine-fed basinwide ore hosts during times of MgSO4-depleted and MgSO4-enriched oceans (Warren, 2016; Chapter 11). This time-based dichotomy in potash ore sources with nonmarine hosts in the Quaternary deposits and marine evaporite hosted ore zones in Miocene deposits and older, reflects a simple lack of basinwide marine deposits and appropriate marine chemistry across the Neogene (Warren, 2010). As for all ancient marine evaporites, the depositional system that deposited ancient marine-fed potash deposits was one to two orders of magnitude larger and the resultant deposits were typically thicker stacks than any Quaternary potash settings. The last such “saline giant” potash system was the Solfifera series in the Sicilian basin, deposited as part of the Mediterranean “salinity crisis,” but these potential ore beds are of the less economically attractive MgSO4- enriched marine potash series.

So, what are the factors that favour the formation of, and hence exploration for, additional deposits of exploitable ancient potash? First, large MOP solid-state ore sources are all basinwide, not lacustrine deposits. Within the basinwide association, it seems that intracratonic basins host significantly larger reserves of ore, compared to systems that formed in the more tectonically-active plate-edge rift and suture association. This is a reflection of: 1) accessibility – near the shallow current edge of a salt basin, 2) a lack of a halokinetic overprint and, 3) the setup of longterm, stable, edge-dissolution brine hydrologies that typify many intracratonic basins. Known reserves of potash in the Devonian Prairie evaporite in West Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) are of the order of 50 times that of next largest known deposit, the Permian of the Upper Kama basin, and more than two orders of magnitude larger than any other of the other known exploited deposits (Table 1).

Part of this difference in the volume of recoverable reserves lies in the fact that the various Canadian potash members in the WCSB are still bedded and flat-lying. Beds have not been broken up or steepened, by any subsequent halokinesis. The only set of processes overprinting and remobilising the various potash salts in the WCSB are related to multiple styles and timings of aquifer encroachment on the potash units, and this probably took place at various times since the potash was first deposited, driven mainly by a combination of hinterland uplift and subrosion. In contrast, most of the other significant potash basins listed in Table 10 have been subjected to ongoing combinations of halokinesis and groundwater encroachments, making these beds much less laterally predictable. In their formative stages, the WCSB potash beds were located a substantial distance from the orogenic belt that drove flexural downwarp and creation of the subsealevel sag depression. Like many other intracratonic basins, the WCSB did not experience significant syndepositional compression or rift-related loading.

References

Adamo, S., 1992, The Sicilian rock salt and potash mines: Mining Magazine, v. 166, p. 277-283.

Adams, S. S., 1970, Ore controls, Carlsbad potash district, southeast New Mexico, in J. L. Rau, and L. F. Dellwig, eds., Third Symposium on Salt, v. 1: Cleveland, Ohio, Northern Ohio Geological Society, p. 246-257.

Baadsgaard, H., 1987, Rb-Sr and K-Ca isotope systematics in minerals from potassium horizons in the Prairie Evaporite Formation, Saskatchewan, Canada: Chemical Geology, v. 66, p. 1-15.

Baar, C. A., 1974, Geological problems in Saskatchewan potash mining due to peculiar conditions during deposition of Potash Beds, in A. H. Coogan, ed., Fourth Symposium on Salt, v. 1: Cleveland, Ohio, North Ohio Geological Society, p. 101-118.

Bastow, I. D., A. D. Booth, G. Corti, D. Keir, C. Magee, C. A.-L. Jackson, J. Warren, J. Wilkinson, and M. Lascialfari, 2018, The development of late-stage continental breakup: Seismic reflection and borehole evidence from the Danakil Depression, Ethiopia: Tectonics, v. 37.

Bingham, C. P., 1980, Solar production of potash from brines of the Bonneville Salt Flats, in J. W. Gwynn, ed., Great Salt Lake; a scientific, history and economic overview. , v. 116, Bulletin Utah Geological and Mineral Survey, p. 229-242.

Blanc-Valleron, M.-M., and M. Schuler, 1997, The Salt Basins of Alsace (Southern Rhine Graben), in G. Busson, and B. C. Schreiber, eds., Sedimentary Deposition in Rift and Foreland Basins in France and Spain (Paleogene and Lower Neogene): New York, Columbia University Press, p. 95–135.

Blanc-Valleron, M. M., 1991, Les formations paléogènes évaporitiques du bassin potassique de Mulhouse et des bassins plus septentrion aux d'Alsace (Document BRGM, 204), Université Louis Pasteur, Paris, 350 p.

Borchert, H., and R. O. Muir, 1964, Salt deposits-The origin, metamorphism and deformation of evaporites: London, D. Van Nostrand Co., Ltd., 338 p.

Boys, C., 1990, The geology of potash deposits at PCS Cory Mine, Saskatchewan: Master's thesis, University of Saskatchewan; Saskatoon, SK; Canada, 225 p.

Boys, C., 1993, A geological approach to potash mining problems in Saskatchewan, Canada: Exploration & Mining Geology, v. 2, p. 129-138.

Braitsch, O., 1971, Salt Deposits: Their Origin and Compositions: New York, Springer-Verlag, 297 p.

Brodylo, L. A., and R. J. Spencer, 1987, Depositional environment of the Middle Devonian Telegraph Salts, Alberta, Canada: Bulletin Canadian Petroleum Geology, v. 35, p. 186-196.

Cendon, D. I., C. Ayora, J. J. Pueyo, and C. Taberner, 2003, The geochemical evolution of the Catalan potash subbasin, South Pyrenean foreland basin (Spain): Chemical Geology, v. 200, p. 339-357.

Cendon, D. I., C. Ayora, J. J. Pueyo, C. Taberner, and M. M. Blanc-Valleron, 2008, The chemical and hydrological evolution of the Mulhouse potash basin (France): Are "marine" ancient evaporites always representative of synchronous seawater chemistry?: Chemical Geology, v. 252, p. 109-124.

Cendon, D. I., C. Ayora, and J. P. Pueyo, 1998, The origin of barren bodies in the Subiza potash deposit, Navarra, Spain - Implications for sylvite formation: Journal of Sedimentary Research Section A-Sedimentary Petrology & Processes, v. 68, p. 43-52.

Cheng, H. D., Q. Y. Hai, H. Z. Ma, X. Y. Zhang, Q. L. Tang, Q. S. Fan, Y. S. Li, and W. L. Miao, 2016, Implications for the origin of secondary sylvite from a simulation of carnallite dissolution: Journal of Geochemical Exploration, v. 165, p. 189-198.

Cheng, H. D., H. Z. Ma, Q. Y. Hai, Z. H. Zhang, L. M. Xu, and G. F. Ran, 2015, Model for the decomposition of carnallite in aqueous solution: Int. J. Miner. Process., v. 139, p. 36-42.

Chipley, D., and T. K. Kyser, 1991, Large scale fluid movement in the Western Canadian sedimentary basin as recorded by fluid inclusions in evaporites, in J. E. Christopher, and F. M. Haidl, eds., Sixth international Williston Basin symposium, v. 6, Special Publication Saskatchewan Geological Society, p. 265-269.

Chipley, D., T. K. Kyser, and T. Danyluk, 1990, Fluid flow events in the Elk Point Baain of western Canada as recorded in evaporite minerals: Summary of Investigations 1990, Saskatchewan Geological Survey; Saskatchewan Energy and Mines, Miscellaneous Report, p. 211-217.

Chipley, D. B. L., 1995, Fluid history of the Saskatchewan sub-basin of the western Canada sedimentary basin: Evidence from the geochemistry of evaporites: Doctoral thesis, University of Saskatchewan.

Chipley, D. B. L., and T. K. Kyser, 1989, Fluid inclusion evidence for the deposition and diagenesis of the Patience Lake Member of the Devonian Prairie Evaporite Formation, Saskatchewan, Canada: Sedimentary Geology, v. 64, p. 287-295.

de Ruiter, P. A. C., 1979, The Gabon and Congo basins salt deposits: Economic Geology, v. 74, p. 419-431.

Dong, Z., P. Lv, G. Qian, X. Xia, Y. Zhao, and G. Mu, 2012, Research progress in China's Lop Nur: Earth-Science Reviews, v. 111, p. 142-153.

Duan, Z. H., and W. X. Hu, 2001, The accumulation of potash in a continental basin: the example of the Qarhan Saline Lake, Qaidam Basin, West China: European Journal of Mineralogy, v. 13, p. 1223-1233.

Eatock, W. H., 1987, The Big Quill Lake sulphate of potash project, in C. F. Gilboy, and L. W. Vigrass, eds., Economic Minerals of Saskatchewan, Proceedings of a Symposium Held in Regina, Saskatchewan 17 & 18 November 1986, : Saskatchewan Geological Society Special Publication Number 8, p. 206–210.

El Tabakh, M., C. Utha-Aroon, and B. C. Schreiber, 1999, Sedimentology of the Cretaceous Maha Sarakham evaporites in the Khorat Plateau of northeastern Thailand: Sedimentary Geology, v. 123, p. 31-62.

Emons, H., and H. Voigt, 1981, Untersvchungen zur kalten zersetzunung von Carnallit.: Freiberg Forschungsher, v. A628, p. 69-78.

Evans, R., 1970, Genesis of sylvite- and carnallite-bearing rocks from Wallace, Nova Scotia: Third Symposium on Salt, v. 1, p. 239-245.

 

Fabricius, J., and Rose-Hansen, J., 1988, Pressure-dependent melting curve of natural carnallite, KMgCl3.6H2O, in a closed system where evaporation is prevented. IX Symposium on Fluid Inclusions, 4-6 May, 1987, Oporto, Portugal.

 

Fuzesy, A., 1982, Potash in Saskatchewan: Report, Saskatchewan Department of Mineral Resources, v. 181, 45 p.

Garrett, D. E., 1995, Potash: Deposits, processing, properties and uses: Berlin, Springer, 752 p.

Garrett, D. E., 2004, Handbook of Lithium and natural Calcium Chloride; Their deposits, processing, uses and properties Amsterdam, Elsevier Academic Press, 476 p.

Gendzwill, D. J., 1978, Winnipegosis mounds and Prairie Evaporite Formation of Saskatchewan – seismic study: Bulletin American Association Petroleum Geologists, v. 62, p. 73-86.

Grishina, S., J. Dubessy, A. Kontorovich, and J. Pironon, 1992, Inclusions in salt beds resulting from thermal metamorphism by dolerite sills (eastern Siberia, Russia): European Journal of Mineralogy, v. 4, p. 1187-1202.

Grishina, S., J. Pironon, M. Mazurov, S. Goryainov, A. Pustilnikov, G. Fonderflaas, and A. Guerci, 1998, Organic inclusions in salt - Part 3 - Oil and gas inclusions in Cambrian evaporite deposits from east Siberia - A contribution to the understanding of nitrogen generation in evaporite: Organic Geochemistry, v. 28, p. 297-310.

Gutsche, A., 1988, Mineralreaktionen und Sto€transporte an einem Kontakt Basalt-Hartsalz in der Werra-Folge des Werkes Hattorf: Unpubl. diploma thesis, thesis, Georg-August-Universita, Gottingen.

Hardie, L. A., 1984, Evaporites: Marine or non-marine?: American Journal of Science, v. 284, p. 193-240.

Hardie, L. A., 1990, The roles of rifting and hydrothermal CaCl2 brines in the origin of potash evaporites: an hypothesis: American Journal of Science, v. 290, p. 43-106.

Hinsken, S., K. Ustaszewski, and A. Wetze, 2007, Graben width controlling syn-rift sedimentation: the Palaeogene southern Upper Rhine Graben as an example: International Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 96, p. 979-1002.

Hite, R. J., 1961, Potash-bearing evaporite cycles in the salt anticlines of the Paradox Basin, Colorado and Utah; Article 337: U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper. p. D323-D327.

Hite, R. J., and T. Japakasetr, 1979, Potash deposits of the Khorat Plateau, Thailand and Laos: Economic Geology, v. 74, p. 448-458.

Hofmann, P., A. Y. Huc, B. Carpentier, P. Schaeffer, P. Albrecht, B. Keely, J. R. Maxwell, D. J. S. Sinninghe, L. J. W. de, and D. Leythaeuser, 1993a, Organic matter of the Mulhouse Basin, France; a synthesis: Organic Geochemistry, v. 20, p. 1105-1123.

Hofmann, P., D. Leythaeuser, and B. Carpentier, 1993b, Palaeoclimate controlled accumulation of organic matter in Oligocene evaporite sediments of the Mulhouse Basin: Organic Geochemistry, v. 20, p. 1125-1138.

Holser, W. T., 1979, Trace elements and isotopes in evaporites in R. G. Burns, ed., Marine Minerals, v. 6, Reviews in Mineralogy, p. 295-346.

Holt, N. M., J. García-Veigas, T. K. Lowenstein, P. S. Giles, and S. Williams-Stroud, 2014, The major-ion composition of Carboniferous seawater: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 134, p. 317-334.

Holter, M., 1972, Geology of the Prairie Evaporite Formation of Saskatchewan, Canada, Geology of saline deposits (Geologie des depots salins), v. 7, UNESCO Earth Sci. Ser., p. 183-189.

Holwerda, J. G., and R. W. Hutchinson, 1968, Potash-bearing evaporites in the Danakil area, Ethiopia: Economic Geology, v. 63, p. 124-150.

Hong, X. L., S. P. Xia, and S. Y. Gao, 1994, Dissolution kinetics of carnallite (in Chinese with English abstract). Chin. J. Appl. Chem., v. 11, p. 26-31.

Horita, J., A. Weinberg, N. Das, and H. Holland, 1996, Brine inclusions in halite and the origin of the Middle Devonian Prairie evaporites of western Canada: Journal of Sedimentary Research Section A-Sedimentary Petrology & Processes, v. 66, p. 956-954.

Hryniv, S. P., B. V. Dolishniy, O. V. Khmelevska, A. V. Poberezhskyy, and S. V. Vovnyuk, 2007, Evaporites of Ukraine: a review: Geological Society, London, Special Publications, v. 285, p. 309-334.

Jensen, G. K. S., B. J. Rostron, M. J. M. Duke, and C. Holmden, 2006, Bromine and stable isotopic profiles of formation waters from potash mine-shafts, Saskatchewan, Canada: Journal of Geochemical Exploration, v. 89, p. 170-173.

Knipping, B., 1989, Basalt intrusions in evaporites: Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences (Springer-Verlag), v. 24, p. 132 pp.

Koehler, G., T. K. Kyser, R. Enkin, and E. Irving, 1997, Paleomagnetic and isotopic evidence for the diagenesis and alteration of evaporites in the Paleozoic Elk Point Basin, Saskatchewan, Canada: Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 34, p. 1619-1629.

Koehler, G. D., 1997, The Geochemistry and Petrogenesis of Carnallite and its Relationship to the Diagenesis of the Devonian Prairie Formation: PhD thesis, University of Saskatchewan.

Koehler, G. D., T. K. Kyser, and T. Danyluk, 1990, Stable Isotope evidence for the petrogenesis of carnallite In the Middle Devonian Prairie Evaporile Formation, Saskatchewan: Summary of Investigations 1990, Saskatchewan Geological Survey; Saskatchewan Energy and Mines, Miscellaneous Report 90-04.

Liu, C., Y. Ji, Y. Bai, F. Cheng, and X. Lu, 2007, Formation of porous crystals by coupling of dissolution and nucleation process in fractional crystallization: Fluid Phase Equilib, v. 261, p. 300-305.

Lowenstein, T., B. Kendall, and A. D. Anbar, 2014, Chapter 8.21. The Geologic History of Seawater, Treatise on Geochemistry (2nd Edition), Elsevier, p. 569-621.

Lowenstein, T. K., 1988, Origin of depositional cycles in a Permian ''saline giant''; the Salado (McNutt Zone) evaporites of New Mexico and Texas: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 100, p. 592-608.

Lowenstein, T. K., and R. J. Spencer, 1990, Syndepositional origin of potash evaporites; petrographic and fluid inclusion evidence: American Journal of Science, v. 290, p. 43-106.

Ma, L., T. K. Lowenstein, B. Li, P. Jiang, C. Liu, J. Zhong, J. Sheng, H. Qiu, and H. Wu, 2010, Hydrochemical characteristics and brine evolution paths of Lop Nor Basin, Xinjiang Province, Western China: Applied Geochemistry, v. 25, p. 1770-1782.

Mackintosh, A. D., and G. A. McVittie, 1983, Geological anomalies observed at the Cominco Ltd. Saskatchewan potash mine: Potash '83; Potash technology; mining, processing, maintenance, transportation, occupational health and safety, environment., p. 59-64.

Matthews, R. D., and G. C. Egleson, 1974, Origin and Implications of a Mid-Basin Potash Facies in the Salina Salt of Michigan, Fourth International Symposium on Salt, v. 1, Northern Ohio Geological Society, p. 15-34.

McIntosh, R. A., and N. C. Wardlaw, 1968, Barren halite bodies in the sylvinite mining zone at Esterhazy, Saskatchewan: Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 5, p. 1221-1238.

Mossman, D. J., R. N. Delabio, and A. D. Mackintosh, 1982, Mineralogy of clay marker seams in some Saskatchewan potash mines: Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 19, p. 2126-2140.

Mossop, G., and I. Shetsen, 1994, Geological Atlas of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin: Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists and Alberta Research Council, 504 p.

Prud'homme, M., and S. T. Krukowski, 2006, Potash, in J. E. Kogel, N. C. Trivedi, J. M. Barker, and S. T. Krukowski, eds., Industrial Minerals and Rocks, SME (Soc. Mining Metallurgy and Exploration), p. 723-742.

Richter-Bernburg, G., 1986, Zechstein 1 and 2 anhydrites; facts and problems of sedimentation, in G. M. Harwood, and D. B. Smith, eds., The English Zechstein and related topics, v. 22: London, UK, Geological Society Special Publication, p. 157-163.

Rogers, M. B., and B. Pratt, 2017, Stratigraphy of the Middle Devonian Keg River and Prairie Evaporite formations, northeast Alberta, Canada: Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology, v. 65, p. 5-63.

Root, K. G., 2001, Devonian Antler Fold and Thrust Belt and Foreland Basin Development in the Southern Canadian Cordillera: Implications for the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin: Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology, v. 49, p. 7-36.

Rosell, L., and F. Ortí, 1981, The saline (potash) formation of the Navarra basin (Upper Eocene, Spain). Petrology: Revista Instituto Investigaciones Geologicas, v. 35, p. 71-121.

Rouchy, J.-M., 1997, Paleogene Continental Rift System of Western Europe: locations of basins, paleogeographic and structural framework, and the distribution of evaporites: In: Busson, G., Schreiber, B.C. (Eds.), Sedimentary Deposition in Rift and Foreland Basins in France and Spain (Paleogene and Lower Neogene). Columbia University Press, New York, pp. 45–94.

Schofield, N., I. Alsop, J. Warren, J. R. Underhill, R. Lehné, W. Beer, and V. Lukas, 2014, Mobilizing salt: Magma-salt interactions: Geology, v. 42, p. 599-602.

Schwerdtner, W. M., 1964, Genesis of potash rocks in Middle Devonian Prairie Evaporite Formation of Saskatchewan: Bulletin American Association Petroleum Geologists, v. 48, p. 1108-1115.

Schwerdtner, W. M., 1964, Genesis of potash rocks in Middle Devonian Prairie Evaporite Formation of Saskatchewan: Bulletin American Association Petroleum Geologists, v. 48, p. 1108-1115.

Smith, D. B., 1996, Deformation in the late Permian Boulby Halite (EZ3Na) in Teesside, NE England: Geological Society, London, Special Publications, v. 100, p. 77-87.

Smith, D. B., and A. Crosby, 1979, The regional and stratigraphical context of Zechstein 3 and 4 potash deposits in the British sector of the southern North Sea and adjoining land areas: Economic Geology, v. 74, p. 397-408.

Steinmann, M., P. Stille, W. Bernotat, and B. Knipping, 1999, The corrosion of basaltic dykes in evaporites: Ar-Sr-Nd isotope and rare earth elements evidence: Chemical Geology, v. 153, p. 259-279.

Szatmari, P., R. S. Carvalho, and I. A. Simoes, 1979, A comparison of evaporite facies in the late Paleozoic Amazon and the Middle Cretaceous South Atlantic salt basins: Economic Geology, v. 74, p. 432-447.

Valyashko, M. G., 1972, Playa lakes, a necessary stage in the development of a salt-bearing basin [with discussion]: Geology of saline deposits, Unesco Earth Sci. Ser., p. 41-51.

van't Hoff, J. H., 1912, Untersuchungen Uber die Bildungsurhältnisse der ozeanischen Salzablangerungen, insbesondere das Stassfurter Salzlagers: Leipzig.

Voigt, W., 2015, What we know and still not know about oceanic salts: Pure Appl. Chem., v. 87, p. 1099-1026.

Volozh, Y., C. J. Talbot, and A. Ismail-Zadeh, 2003, Salt structures and hydrocarbons in the Pricaspian basin: Bulletin American Association Petroleum Geologists, v. 87, p. 313-334.

Wall, M., J. Cartwright, R. Davies, and A. McGrandle, 2010, 3D seismic imaging of a Tertiary Dyke Swarm in the Southern North Sea, UK: Basin Research, v. 22, p. 181-194.

Wardlaw, N. C., 1968, Carnallite-sylvite relationships in the middle Devonian Prairie evaporite formation, Saskatchewan: Geological Society America Bulletin, v. 79, p. 1273-1294.

Wardlaw, N. C., 1972a, Unusual marine evaporites with salts of calcium and magnesium chloride in Cretaceous basins of Sergipe, Brazil: Economic Geology, v. 67, p. 156-168.

Wardlaw, N. C., 1972b, Syn-sedimentary folds and associated structures in Cretaceous salt deposits of Sergipe, Brazil: J. Sediment. Petrol., v. 42, p. 572-577.

Wardlaw, N. C., and G. D. Nicholls, 1972, Cretaceous Evaporites of Brazil and West Africa and their Bearing on the Theory of Continent Separation.: 24th Inter. Geol. Congr., v. 6, p. 43-55.

Wardlaw, N. C., and D. W. Watson, 1966, Middle Devonian salt formations and their bromide content, Elk Point area, Alberta: Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 3, p. 263-275.

Warren, J. K., 2000, Geological controls on the quality of potash, in R. M. Geertmann, ed., 8th World Salt Symposium, v. 1: Amsterdam, Elsevier, p. 173-180.

Warren, J. K., 2010, Evaporites through time: Tectonic, climatic and eustatic controls in marine and nonmarine deposits: Earth-Science Reviews, v. 98, p. 217-268.

Warren, J. K., 2011, Evaporitic source rocks: mesohaline responses to cycles of “famine or feast” in layered brines, Doug Shearman Memorial Volume, (Wiley-Blackwell) IAS Special Publication Number 43, p. 315-392.

Warren, J. K., 2016, Evaporites: A compendium (ISBN 978-3-319-13511-3): Berlin, Springer, 1854 p.

Warren, J. K., 2017, Salt usually seals, but sometimes leaks: Implications for mine and cavern stabilities in the short and long term: Earth-Science Reviews, v. 165, p. 302-341.

Williams-Stroud, S. C., 1994, Solution to the Paradox? Results of some chemical equilibrium and mass balance calculations applied to the Paradox Basin evaporite deposit: American Journal of Science, v. 294, p. 1189-1228.

Wittrup, M. B., and T. K. Kyser, 1990, The petrogenesis of brines in Devonian potash deposits of western Canada: Chemical Geology, v. 82, p. 103-128.

Woods, P. J. E., 1979, The geology of Boulby Mine: Economic Geology, v. 74, p. 409-418.

Worsley, N., and A. Fuzesy, 1979, The potash-bearing members of the Devonian Prairie Evaporite of southeastern Saskatchewan, south of the mining area: Economic Geology, v. 74, p. 377-388.

Xia, S. P., X. L. Hong, and S. Y. Gao, 1993, Study on the dissolution kinetics and mechanism of carnallite and KC (in Chinese with English abstract): Journal Salt Lake Research, v. 1, p. 52-60.

Yang, C., G. Jensen, and J. Berenyi, 2009, The Stratigraphic Framework of the Potash-rich Members of the Middle Devonian Upper Prairie Evaporite Formation, Saskatchewan: Summary of Investigations 2009, Saskatchewan Geological Survey; Misc. Rep. 2009-4.1, 28 p.

Zak, I., 1997, Evolution of the Dead Sea brines, in T. M. Niemi, Z. Ben-Avraham, and J. R. Gat, eds., The Dead Sea, The Lake and Its Setting, v. 36: Oxford, Oxford University Press; Monographs on Geology and Geophysics, p. 133-144.

Zharkov, M. A., 1984, Paleozoic salt bearing formations of the world: Berlin, Springer Verlag, 427 p.

 

Salt Dissolution (3 of 5): Natural Geohazards

John Warren - Tuesday, October 31, 2017


Introduction

Surface constructions and other anthropogenic activities atop or within evaporite karst terranes is more problematic than in subcopping carbonate terranes due to inherently higher rates of dissolution and stoping (Yilmaz et al., 2011; Cooper and Gutiérrez, 2013; Gutiérrez et al., 2014). Overburden collapse into nearsurface gypsum caves can create stoping chimneys, which break out at the surface as steep-sided dolines, often surrounded by broader subsidence hollows. Such swallow-holes, up to 20 m deep and 40 m wide, continue to appear suddenly and naturally in gypsum areas throughout the world.

Unlike the relatively slow formation of limestone karst, gypsum/halite karst develops on a human/engineering time-scale and can be enhanced by human activities (Warren, 2016, 2017). For example, in 2006, the Nanjing Gypsum mine in China broke into a phreatic cavity in a region of gypsum karst, driving complete flooding of the mine in some three days. Associated groundwater drainage caused a sharp drop in the local piezometric level of up to 90 m in a well in nearby Huashu village. Resultant ground subsidence severely damaged nearby roads and buildings (Wang et al., 2008). In Ukraine, dewatering of gypsum karst to facilitate sulphur mining substantially increased the rate of gypsum dissolution and favoured the expansion of sinkholes within an area affected by the associated cones of water-table depression (Sprynskyy et al., 2009). Natural evaporite karst enhanced by intrastructure focusing of drainage creates the various scales of problem across the Gypsum Plain of West Texas and New Mexico (Stafford et al., 2017).

Although halite is even more susceptible to rapid dissolution than gypsum, it typically is not a major urban engineering problem; large numbers of people simply do not like to live in a climate that allows halite to make it to the surface. However, in the Dead Sea region, the ongoing lowering of the water level encouraged karstic collapse in newly exposed mudflats and has damaged roads and other man-made structures (Frumkin et al. 2011; Shviro et al., 2017). Catastrophic doline collapse atop poorly managed halite/potash mines and solution brine fields is an additional anthropogenically-induced or enhanced geohazard in developed regions is discussed in detail in Warren, 2016 (Figure 1).


Gypsum karst is a documented natural hazard in many parts of Europe (Figure 2), and similar areas of shallow subcropping gypsum are common in much of the rest of the world (Table 1). For example, areas surrounding the city of Zaragoza in northern Spain are affected, as is the town of Calatayud (Gutiérrez and Cooper, 2002; Gutiérrez, 2014). Gypsum dissolution is responsible for subsidence and collapse in many urban areas around northern Paris, France (Toulemont, 1984), in urban areas in and around Stuttgart and other towns peripheral to the Harz Mountains in Germany (Garleff et al., 1997), in Pasvalys and Birzai in Lithuania (Paukstys et al., 1999), in the Muttenz-Pratteln area in northwestern Switzerland (Zechner et al., 2011), in the Perm area of Russia (Trzhtsinsky, 2002), in the Sivaz region of Turkey (Karacan and Yilmez, 1997), in the region centred on the city of Mosul in northern Iraq (Jassim et al., 1997) and in a number of areas of rapid urban development in eastern Saudi Arabia (Amin and Bankher, 1997a, b). Large subsidence depressions caused by gypsum dissolution in China have opened up in the Taiyuan and Yangquan regions of Shanxi Coalfield and the adjacent Hebei Coalfield.


Variation in the watertable level, induced by groundwater pumping or uncontrolled brine extraction, can be an anthropogenic trigger for dolines surfacing. As the watertable declines it causes a loss of buoyant support to the ground, it also increases the flow gradient and water velocity, which facilitates higher rates of crossflow and deeper aquifer recharge in subsequent floods and so reduces the geomechanical strength of the cover and washes away roof span support (Figures 1, 3). Dolines can also be associated with groundwater quality issues. Collapse dolines or sinkholes are frequently used as areas or sumps for uncontrolled dumping industrial and domestic waste. Because of the direct connection between them and the regional aquifer, uncontrolled dumping can cause rapid dispersion of chemical and bacterial pollutants in the groundwater. In the case of Riyadh region Saudi Arabia, a lake of near-raw sewage has appeared in Hit Dahl (cave) and is likely related to the increased utilisation of desalinated water for sanitation and agriculture (Warren, 2016). In the Birzai region of Lithuania numerous sinkholes developed in Devonian gypsum subcrop are in direct connection across the regional hydrology. Accordingly, the amount of agricultural fertilizer use is limited to help protect groundwater quality.

One of the problems associated with rapid surfacing of evaporite collapse features is that any assignment of sinkhole cause will typically lead to an assignment of blame, particulary when anthropogenic infrastructure has been damaged or destroyed by the collapse, or lives may have been lost. Areas of natural evaporite karst are typically areas of relatively shallow evaporites. Shallow evaporites make such regions suitable for extraction via conventional or solution mining. When a collapse does occur in a mined area, one group (generally the miners) has a vested interest in arguing for natural collapse, the others, generally the lawyers and their litigants, will argue for an anthropogenic cause. The reality is usually a combination of natural process enhanced to varying degrees by human endeavours. In the examples in this section, much of the driving process for the collapse is natural, while the cause of any unexpected karst-related disaster is typically geological ignorance combined with political/community intransigence. See Chapter 13 for a further discussion of karst and stope examples that include collapses and explosions where the anthropogenic drivers can dominate.

Problems in the Ripon area, Yorkshire, UK

The town of Ripon, North Yorkshire, and town’s surrounds experiences the worst ongoing gypsum-karst related subsidence in England (Figures 3, 4; Cooper and Waltham, 1999). Some 43 events of subsidence or collapse in the caprock over the Ripon gypsum have occurred over the last 160 years, within an area of 7 km2 (Figures 4). This gives a mean rate of one new sinkhole every 26 years in each square kilometre. Worldwide, the highest documented event rate occurs in Ukraine, in an area of thin and weak clay caprocks above interstratal gypsum karst, where new sinkholes appear at a rate of 0.01 to 3.0 per year per km2 (Waltham et al., 2005). In the Ripon area, numerous sags and small collapses also typify surrounding farmlands. Subsidence features are typically 10-30m in diameter, reach up to 20m in depth and can appear at the surface in a matter of hours to days (Figure 3). To the east of the town, one collapse sinkhole in the Sherwood Sandstone is 80 m in diameter and 30 m deep, perhaps reflecting the stronger roof beam capacity of the Sherwood Sandstone.

When a chimney breaks through, the associated surface collapse is very rapid (Figure 3 b-e). For example, one such subsidence crater, which opened up in front of a house on Ure Bank terrace on 23rd and 24th April, 1997, is documented by Cooper (1998.) as follows (Figure 3b).

“...The hole grew in size and migrated towards the house, to measure 10m in diameter and 5.5m deep by the end of Thursday. Four garages have been destroyed by the subsidence. This collapse was the largest of one of a series that have affected this site for more than 30 years; an earlier collapse had demolished two garages on the same site, and a 1856 Ordnance Survey map shows a pond on the same site. The hole is cylindrical but will ultimately fail to become a larger, but conical, depression. As it does so, it may cause collapse of the house, which is already damaged, and the adjacent road. The house and several nearby properties have been evacuated and the nearby road has been closed. The gas and other services, which run close to the hole, have also been disconnected in case of further collapse.”

Cooper (1998) found the sites of most severe subsidence in the Ripon area (including the house at Ure Terrace and in the vicinity of Magdelen's Road) are located at the sides of the buried Ure Valley, an area where the significant volumes of water seeps from the gypsum karst levels into the river gravels (Figure 4). In 1999 the Ure Terrace sinkhole was filled using a long conveyor belt that was cantilevered over the hole so that no trucked needed to back up close to the sinkhole opening. The hole was surcharged to a height of 0.5m. The hole remains unstable, but the collapse of the fill is monitored to document fill performance and the fill is periodically topped up. After the sinkhole was filled, the road adjacent to the sinkhole was re-opened and the site of the sinkhole fenced. The severely damaged Field View house remains standing next to the sinkhole. The nearby Victorian Ure lodge was not directly damaged by the 1997 sinkhole, but its western corner fell within the council-designated damage zone, and was left unoccupied. It fell into disrepair and was subsequently demolished (Figure 3b). A similar fate befell houses damaged by the surfacing of collapse sinkholes in and around Magdelen's Road, which is located a few hundred metres from Ure Terrace (Figure 3c-e). Shallow subcropping Zechstein gypsum (rehydrated anhydrite) occurs in two subcropping bedded units in this area, one is in the Permian Edlington and the other is in the Roxby Formation (Figure 4b). Together they form a subcrop belt about a kilometre wide, bound to the west by the base of the lowest gypsum unit (at the bottom of the Edlington Formation) and to the east by a downdip transition from gypsum to anhydrite in the upper gypsum-bearing unit of the Roxby Formation. The spatial distribution of subsidence features within this belt relates to joint azimuths in the Permian bedrock, with gypsum maze caves and subsidence patterns following the joint trends (Cooper, 1986). Most of the subcropping gypsum is alabastrine in the area around Ripon, while farther to the east, where the unit is thicker and deeper, the calcium sulphate phase is still anhydrite.

Fluctuations in the watertable level tied to heavy rain or long drought are thought to be the most common triggering mechanism for subsidence transitioning to sinkhole collapse. Many of the more catastrophic collapses occur after river flooding and periods of prolonged rain, which tend to wash away cavern roof span support. Subsidence is also aggravated by groundwater pumping; first, it lowers the watertable and second, it induces considerable crossflow of water in enlarged joints in the gypsum. When recharged by a later flood, the replacement water is undersaturated with respect to gypsum.


Thomson et al. (1996) recognised four hydrogeological flow units driving karst collapse in the Ripon area (Figure 4):

1) Quaternary gravels in the buried valley of the proto-River Ure

2) Sherwood Sandstone Group

3) Magnesian Limestone of the Brotherton Fm. and the overlying/adjacent gypsum of the Roxby Fm.

4) Magnesian limestone of the Cadeby Fm. plus the overlying/adjacent gypsum of the Edlington Fm.

Local hydrological base level within this stratigraphy is controlled by the River Ure, especially where the buried Pleistocene valley (proto-Ure) is filled by permeable sands and gravels, as these unconsolidated sediments, when located atop a breached roof beam, are susceptible to catastrophic stoping to base level (Figure 4). In the area around Ripon the palaeovalley cuts down more than 30 m, reaching levels well into the Cadeby Formation, so providing the seepage connections or pathways between waters in all four units wherever they intersect the palaeovalley. There is considerable groundwater outflow along this route with artesian sulphate-rich springs issuing from Permian strata in contact with Quaternary gravels of the buried valley (Cooper, 1986, 1995, 1998).

The potentiometric head comes from precipitation falling on the high ground of the Cadeby formation to the west and the Sherwood Sandstone to the east. Groundwater becomes largely confined beneath glacial till as it seeps toward the Ure Valley depression, but ultimately finds an exit into the modern river via the deeply incised sand and gravel-filled palaeovalley of the proto-Ure. Waters recharging the Ure depression pass through and enlarge joints and caverns in the gypsum units of the Edlington and Roxby Formations, so the highest density of subsidence features are found atop the sides of the palaeovalley. This region has the greatest volume of artesian discharge from aquifers immediately beneath the dissolving gypsum bed. Although created as an active karst valley, the apparent density of subsidence hollows is lower on the present Ure River floodplain than the surrounding lands as floodplain depressions are constantly filled by overbank sediments (Figure 4b).

Cooper (1998) defined 16 sinkhole variations in the gypsum subsidence belt at Ripon, all are types of entrenched, subjacent and mantled karst. Changes in karst style are caused by; the type of gypsum, the nature and thickness of the overlying deposits, presence or absence of consolidated layers overlying the gypsum and the size of voids/caverns within the gypsum.

To the west of Ripon, the gypsum of the Edlington Formation lies directly beneath glacial drift. These unconsolidated drift deposits and the loose residual marl atop the dissolving gypsum gradually subside into a pinnacle or suffusion (mantled) karst. But between Ripon town and the River Ure, the limestone of the Brotherton Formation overlies the Edlington Formation. There the karst develops as large open caverns beneath strong roof spans (entrenched karst). Ultimate collapse of the roof span creates rapid upward-stoping caverns in loosely consolidated sediment. Stopes break though to the surface as steep-sided collapse dolines or chimneys with sometimes catastrophic results. A similar entrenched situation is found east of the Ure River but there karstified gypsum units of both the Edlington and the Roxby formations are involved.


There are also thick beds of gypsum in the Permian Zechstein sequence that forms the bedrock in the Darlington area. In this area, subsidence features attributed to gypsum dissolution are typically broad shallow depressions up to 100 m in diameter, and the ponds, known as Hell Kettles, are the only recognized examples of steep-sided subsidence hollows around Darlington (Figure 5). Historical records suggest that one of the ponds formed in dramatic fashion in AD 1179 (Cooper 1995). The southern pond appears to be the most likely one to have formed at that time because it is many metres deep and is fed from below by calcareous spring water that is rich in both carbonate and sulphate. The 2D profiles have revealed evidence of foundering in the limestone of the Seaham Formation at depths of c. 50 m (Figure 5; Sargent and Goulty, 2009). The foundering is interpreted to have resulted from dissolution of gypsum in the Hartlepool Anhydrite Formation at ≈ 70 m depth. The reflection images of the gypsum itself are discontinuous, suggesting that its top surface has karstic topography. The 3D survey also acquired and interpreted by Sargent and Goulty (2009) reveals subcircular hollows in the Seaham Formation up to 20 m across, which are again attributed to foundering caused by gypsum dissolution.


Problems with Miocene gypsum, Spain

Karstification has led to problems in areas of subcropping Miocene gypsum in the Ebro and Calatayud basins, northern Spain (Figure 6). Cliff sections and road cuts indicate the widespread nature of karstification in the gypsum outcrops and subcrops in Spain (Figure 7b) Areas affected are defined by subsidence or collapse in Quaternary alluvial overburden and include; urban areas, communication routes, roads, railways, irrigation channels and agricultural fields (Figure 7a; Soriano and Simon, 1995; Elorza and Santolalla, 1998; Guerrero et al., 2013; Gutiérrez et al., 2014). In the region there can be a reciprocal interaction between anthropic activities and sinkhole generation, whereby the ground disturbance engendered by human activity accelerates, enlarges and triggers the creation of new sinkholes. Subsidence is particularly harmful to linear constructions and buildings and numerous roads, motorways and railways have been damaged (Figure 7a, b). Catastrophic collapse and rapid karst chimneying into roads and buildings can have potentially fatal consequences. For example, several buildings have been damaged around the towns of Casetas and Utebo. In the Portazgo industrial estate some factories had to be pulled down due to collapse-induced instability (Castañeda et al., 2009). A nearby gas explosion was attributed to the breakage of a gas pipe caused by subsidence. The local water supply is also disrupted by subsidence and pipe breakage so that 20,000 inhabitants periodically lose their water supply. The most striking example of subsidence affecting development comes from the village of Puilatos, in the Gallego Valley. In the 1970's this town was severely damaged by subsidence and abandoned before it could be occupied (Cooper 1996).


Collapse affects irrigation channels in the countryside with substantial economic losses (Elorza and Santolalla, 1998). In 1996 a doline collapse surfaced and cut the important Canal Imperial at Gallur village. New dolines often form near unlined irrigation canals. The ongoing supply of fresh irrigation waters to field crops can also encourage sinkhole generation in the fields. Though not directly visible, natural sinkholes also form in the submerged beds of river channels cutting regions of subcropping gypsum.

On December 19th, 1971, a bus fell from a bridge into the Ebro River at Zaragoza, near where the ‘San Lazaro well’ (a submerged gypsum sinkhole) is located (Figure 8a). Ten people lost their lives in this accident , while the remainder of the passengers were rescued, after being stranded on the bus roof in the flowing river for some hours (Figure 8b). After survivors were rescued, river waters washed the bus from the foot of the bridge supports into the nearby 'San Lazaro well (collapse sinkhole) in the water-covered floor of the river. Nine of the ten bodies in the bus were never found, although the bus was later recovered from the sinkhole. Locals suggested that bodies were carried deeper into the various interconnect phreatic sinkhole caverns fed by this losing stream.


Karstification in the Zaragoza region is characterised by the preferential intrastatal dissolution of glauberite bed, which are more soluble than the gypsum interbeds, this leads to collapse and rotation of gypsum blocks and river capture (Guerrero et al., 2013).

Sometimes even well-intentioned attempts to remediate culturally significant buildings under threat of evaporite karst collapse can exacerbate collapse problems. Gutiérrez and Cooper (2002) cite examples from the city of Calatayud, Spain. Subsidence-induced differential loading across doline edges drives the tilting of the 25-metre high tower (mudéjar) of the San Pedro de Los Francos church, which leans towards and overhangs the street by about 1.5 metres. (Figure 9) In places, the brickwork of the church indents the pre-existing tower fabric, which probably dates from the 11th Century or the beginning of the 12th Century. This indentation and the non-alignment of the church and the tower walls indicates that most of the tower tilting occurred prior to the construction of the church. In 1840, the upper 5m of the tower was removed and the lower part buttressed for the safety of the Royal family, who visited the town and stayed in the palace opposite. On 3rd June 1931, San Pedro de Los Francos church was declared a “Monument of Historical and Artistic value.” Due to its ruinous condition, the church was closed to worship in 1979. Micropiling to improve the foundation was started in 1994, but this corrective measure was interrupted when only half of the building was underpinned. Very rapid differential settlement of the building took place in the following year, causing extensive damage and aggravating the subsidence problem.


Colegiata de Santa María la Mayor was constructed between the 13th and 18th centuries, it has an outstanding Mudéjar (a 72 m high tower) and numerous Renaissance features; it is considered the foremost monument in the city of Cataluyud. As with the San Pedro de los Francos Church, recent micropiling work, applied to only one part of the cloister, has been followed by alarming differential movements that have drastically accelerated the deterioration of the building. Large blocks have fallen from the vault of the “Capitular Hall” and cracks up to 150 mm wide have opened in the brickwork of the back (NW) elevation, which has now been shored up for safety. The dated plaster tell-tales placed in these cracks to monitor the displacement demonstrate the high speed of the deformation produced by subsidence in recent years. On the afternoon of 10 September 1996, the fracture of a water supply pipe flooded the cloisters and the church with 100 mm of muddy water. Ten years earlier a similar breakage and flood had occurred. These breaks in the water pipes are most likely related to karst-induced subsidence. Once they occur, the massive input of water to the subsurface may trigger further destruction via enhanced dissolution, piping and hydrocollapse (Gutiérrez and Cooper, 2002).


Gypsum karst in Mosul, Iraq

A similar quandary of multiple areas of structural damage from gypsum-induced subsidence affects large parts or the historic section of the city of Mosul in northern Iraq (Jassim et al., 1997). The main part of its old quarter is over a century old and some buildings are a few hundred years old. Mosul lies on the northeastern flank of the Abu Saif anticline and near to its northern plunge (Figure 10a). It was built on the western bank of the Tigris River on a dip slope of Middle Miocene Fatha limestone that is directly underlain by bedded gypsum and green marl (equivalent to Lower Fars Formation). Houses in the old city were built on what seemed to be at the time a very sound rock foundation.

Water distribution in the city was done on mule back in the early part of last century and the estimated water consumption did not exceed 10 litres per person per day (Jassim et al., 1997). Discharge from households was partly to surface drainage and partly to shallow and small septic tanks. The modern piped system of water distribution did not start until the 1940s, resulting in a sudden increase in water consumption (presently around 200 litres per person per day) and it was not associated with a complementary sewer system. Increased water consumption meant larger and deeper septic tanks were dug at the perimeter of buildings (which never seemed to fill) resulting in a dramatic increase in water percolating downwards, water that was also more corrosive than previously due to the increased use of detergents and chlorination. This water passes through the permeable and fractured limestone to the underlying gypsum. On its way through the limestone it enlarges and creates new dissolution cavities, but eventually finds its way into the older gypsum karst maze, which is then further widened as water drains back into the Tigris (Figure 10b). Caverns in the gypsum enlarge until the roof span collapses. Since the 1970s more and more buildings in the old city have fractured and many are subject to sudden collapse. The problem is further intensified due to the expansion of the city in the up-dip direction (west and southwest) including the construction of industrial, water-dependent centres with integrated drainage. Water seeping/draining from these newly developed up-dip areas eventually passes under the old city before discharging in the Tigris river. The process was slightly arrested in the 1980s by the completion of a drainage system for the city, but the degradation of the old city continues.

Coping: man-made structures atop salts

The towns of Ripon in the UK and Pasvales and Birzai in Lithuania house some 45,000 people, who currently live under the ongoing threat of catastrophic subsidence, caused by natural gypsum dissolution (Paukstys et al., 1999). Special measures for construction of houses, roads, bridges and railways are needed in these areas and should include: incorporating several layers of high tensile heavy duty reinforced plastic mesh geotextile into road embankments and car parks; using sacrificial supports on bridges so that the loss of support of any one upright will not cause the deck to collapse; extending the foundations of bridge piers laterally to an amount that could span the normal size of collapses; and using ground monitoring systems to predict areas of imminent collapse (Cooper 1995, 1998).


Dams to store urban water supplies are costly structures and failure can lead to disaster, large scale mortality and financial liability (for example, Cooper and Gutiérrez, 2013). For example, at two and a half minutes before midnight on March 12, 1928, the St. Francis Dam (California) failed catastrophically and the resulting flood killed more than 400 people (Figure 11). The collapse of the St. Francis Dam is considered to be one of the worst American civil engineering disasters of the 20th century and remains the second-greatest loss of life in California’s history, after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire. The collapse was partly attributed to dissolution of gypsum veins beneath the dam foundations. The Quail Creek Dam, Utah, constructed in 1984 failed in 1989, the underlying cause being an unappreciated existence of, and consequent enlargement of, cavities in the gypsum strata beneath its foundations.

Unexpected water leakage from reservoirs, via ponors, sinkholes and karst conduits, leads to costly inefficiency, or even project abandonment. Unnaturally high hydraulic gradients, induced by newly impounded water, may flush out of the sediment that previously blocked karst conduits. It can also produce rapid dissolutional enlargement of discontinuities, which can quickly reach break-through dimensions with turbulent flow. These processes may significantly increase the hydraulic permeability in the region of the dam foundation, on an engineering time scale.

Accordingly, numerous dams in regions of the USA underlain by shallow evaporites either have gypsum karst problems, or have encountered gypsum-related difficulties during construction (Johnson, 2008). Examples include; the San Fernando, Dry Canyon, Buena Vista, Olive Hills and Castaic dams in California; the Hondo, Macmillan and Avalon dams in New Mexico; Sandford Dam in Texas; Red Rock Dam in Iowa; Fontanelle Dam in Oklahoma; Horsetooth Dam and Carter Dam in Colorado and the Moses Saunders Tower Dam in New York State. Up to 13,000 tonnes of mainly gypsum and anhydrite were dissolved from beneath a dam in Iraq in only six months causing concerns about the dam stability (Figure 13). In China, leaking dams and reservoirs on gypsum include the Huoshipo Dam and others in the same area. The Bratsk Dam in eastern Siberia is leaking, and in Tajikistan the dam for the Nizhne-Kafirnigansk hydroelectric scheme was designed to cope with active gypsum dissolution occurring below the grout curtain. Gypsum karst in the foundation trenches of the Casa de Piedra Dam, Argentina and El Isiro Dam in Venezuela, caused difficult construction conditions and required design modifications.


Another illustration of the problems associated with water retaining structures and the ineptitude, or lack of oversight, by some city planners comes from the town of Spearfish, South Dakota (Davis and Rahn, 1997 ). As discussed earlier in this chapter, the Triassic Spearfish Formation contains numerous gypsum beds in which evaporite-focused karst landforms are widely documented across its extent in the Black Hills of South Dakota (Figure 12). The evaporite karst in the Spearfish Fm. has caused severe engineering problems for foundations and water retention facilities, including wastewater stabilization sites. One dramatic example of problems in water retention atop gypsum karst comes from the construction in the 1970s of now-abandoned sewage lagoons for the City of Spearfish.

Despite warnings from local ranchers, the Spearfish sewage lagoons were built in 1972 by city authorities on alluvium atop thick gypsum layers of Spearfish Formation. Ironically, at one point during lagoon construction, a scraper became stuck in a sinkhole and required four bulldozers to pull it out. Once filled with sewage, within a year the lagoons started leaking badly; the southern lagoon was abandoned after four years because of ongoing uncontrollable leaks, and the northern lagoon did not completely drain, but could not provide adequate retention time for effective sewage treatment. Attempts at repairs, including a bentonite liner, were ineffective, and poorly treated sewage discharged beneath the lagoon’s berm into a nearby surface drainage. The lagoons were abandoned completely in 1980. This was after a US $27-million lawsuit was filled in 1979 by ranchers whose land and homes were affected by leaking wastewater. A mechanical wastewater treatment plant was constructed nearby on an outcrop of the non-evaporitic Sundance Formation. The engineering firm that designed the facility without completing a knowledgeable geological site survey was reorganised following the lawsuit.

Likewise, the development of Chamshir Dam atop Gascharan Formation outcrop and subcrop in Iran is likely to create ongoing infrastructure cost and water storage problems (Torabi-Kaveh et al., 2012). The site is located in southwest of Iran, on Zuhreh River, 20 km southeast of Gachsaran city. The area is partially covered by evaporite formations of the Fars Group, especially the Gachsaran Formation. The dam axis is located on limestone beds of Mishan Formation, but nearly two-thirds of the dam reservoir is in direct contact with the evaporitic Gachsaran Formation. Strata in the vicinity of the reservoir and dam site have been brecciated and intersected by several faults, such as the Dezh Soleyman thrust and the Chamshir fault zone, which all act in concert to create karst entryways, including local zones of suffusion karst. A wide variety of karstic features typify the region surrounding the dam site and include; karrens, dissolution dolines, karstic springs and cavities. These karst features will compromise the ability of Chamshir Dam to store water, and possibly even cause breaching of the dam, via solution channels and cavities which could allow significant water flow downstream of the dam reservoir. As possible and likely partial short term solutions, Torabi-Kaveh et al. (2012) recommend the construction of a cutoff wall and/or a clay blanket floor to the reservoir

Difficulties in building hydraulic structures on soluble rocks are many, and dealing with them greatly increases project and maintenance costs. Gypsum dissolution at the Hessigheim Dam on the River Neckar in Germany has caused settlement problems in sinkholes nearby. Site investigation showed cavities up to several meters high and remedial grouting from 1986 to 1994 used 10,600 tonnes of cement. The expected life of the dam is only 30-40 years, with continuing grouting required to keep it serviceable.

Grouting costs in zones of evaporite karst can be very high and may approach 15 or 20% of the dam cost, currently reaching US$ 100 million in some cases. In karstified limestones grouting is difficult, yet in gypsum it is even more difficult due to the rapid dissolution rate of the gypsum. Karst expansion in limestone occurs on the scale of hundreds of years, in gypsum it can be on the order of a decade or less. Grouting may also alter the underground flow routes, so translating and focusing the problems to other nearby areas. In the Perm area of Russia, gypsum karst beneath the Karm hydroelectric power station dam has perhaps been successfully grouted, a least in the short term, using an oxaloaluminosilicate gel that hardens the grout, but also coats the gypsum, so slowing its dissolution. The Mont Cenis Dam, in the French Alps, is not itself affected by the dissolution of gypsum. However, the reservoir storage zone is leaking and photogrammetric study of the reservoir slopes showed ongoing doline activity over gypsum and subsidence in the adjacent land.


Probably the worst example tied to and evaporite karst hazard is the significant dam disaster waiting to happen that is the Mosul Dam in Iraq (Figure 13; Kelley et al., 2007; Sissakian and Knutsson, 2014; Milillo et al., 2016). It is ranked as the fourth largest dam in the Middle East, as measured by reserve capacity, capturing snowmelt from Turkey, some 70 miles (110 km) north. Built under the despotic regime of Saddam Hussein, completed in 1984 the Mosul Dam (formerly known as Saddam Dam) is located on the Tigris river, some 50 km NW of Mosul.

The design of the dam was done by a consortium of European consultants (Sissakian and Knutsson, 2014), namely, Swiss Consultants group, comprising: Motor Columbus; Electrowatt; Suiselectra; Societe Generale pour l’Industrie. The construction was carried out by a German-Italian consortium of international contractors, GIMOD joint venture, comprising: Hochtief; Impregilo; Zublin; Tropp; Italstrade; Cogefar. The consultants for project design and construction supervision comprised a joint venture of the above listed Swiss Consultants Group and Energo-Projekt of Yugoslavia, known as MODACON.

As originally constructed the dam is 113 m in height, 3.4 km in length, 10 m wide in its crest and has a storage capacity of 11.1 billion cubic meters (Figure 13b). It is an earth fill dam, constructed on evaporitic bedrock atop a karstified high created by an evaporite cored anticline in the Fat’ha Formation, which consists of gypsum beds alternating with marl and limestone (Figure 13a, 14). To the south, this is same formation with the same evaporite cored anticlinal association that created all the stability problems in the city of Mosul (Figures 10). The inappropriate nature of the Fat’ha Formation as a foundation for any significant engineering structure had been known for more than a half a century. Then again, absolute rulers do not need to heed scientific advice or knowledge. Or perhaps he didn’t get it from a well-paid group of Swiss-based engineering consultants. As Kelley et al. (2007) put it so succinctly....“The site was chosen for reasons other than geologic or engineering merit.”

The likely catastrophic failure of Mosul Dam will drive the following scenario (Sissakian and Knutsson, 2014); “... (dam) failure would produce a flood wave crest about 20 m deep in the City of Mosul. It is estimated that the leading edge of the failure flood wave would arrive in Mosul about 3 hours after failure of the dam, and the crest of the flood wave would arrive in Mosul about 9 hours after failure of the dam. The total population of the City of Mosul is about 3 million, and it is estimated that about 2 million people are in locations within the city that would be inundated by a 20 m deep flood wave. The City of Baghdad is located about 350 km downstream of Mosul Dam, and the dam failure flood wave will arrive after 72 hours in Baghdad and (by then) would be about 4 m deep.”



The heavily karsted Fat’ha Formation is up to 352 m thick at the dam and has an upper and lower member. The lower member is dominated by carbonate in its lower part (locally called “chalky series”) and is in turn underlain by an anhydrite bed known as the GBo. Gypsum beds typify its upper part,and the evaporite interval is capped by a limestone marker bed. The upper member, crops out as green and red claystone with gypsum relicts, around the Butmah Anticline. Thickness of individual gypsum beds below the dam foundations can attain 18 m; these upper member units are intensely karstified, even in foundation rocks, with cavities meters across documented during construction of the dam (Figure 14). Gypsum breccia layers are widespread within the Fatha Formation and have proven to be the most problematic rocks in the dam’s foundation zone. The main breccia body contains fragments or clasts of limestone, dolomite, or larger pieces of insoluble rocks of collapsed material. The upper portion of the accumulation grades upward from rubble to crackle mosaic breccia and then a virtually unaffected competent overburden. Breccia also may form without the intermediate step of an open cavity, by partial dissolution and direct formation of rubble. As groundwater moves through the rubble, soluble minerals are carried away, leaving insoluble residues of chert fragments, quartz grains, silt, and clay in a mineral matrix. These processes result in geologic layers with lateral and vertical heterogeneity on scales of micro-meters to meters.

High permeability zones in actively karsting gypsum regions can form rapidly, days to weeks, and quickly become transtratal. So predicting or controlling breakout zones via grouting and infill can be problematic (Kelley et al., 2007; Sissakian and Knutsson, 2014). For example, four sinkholes formed between 1992 and 1998 approximately 800 m downstream in the maintenance area of the dam (Figure 13a). The sinkholes appeared in a linear arrangement, approximately parallel to the dam axis. Another large sinkhole developed in February 2003, east of the emergency spillway when the pool elevation was at 325 m. The Mosul Dam staff filled the sinkhole the next day, with 1200 m3 of soil. Another sinkhole developed in July 2005 to the east of the saddle dam. Six borings were completed around the sinkhole and indicated that the sinkhole developed beneath overburden deposits and within layers of the Upper Marl Series. Another cause for concern at Mosul Dam in recent years is a potential slide area reported upstream of the dam on the west bank. The slide is most likely related to the movement of beds of the Chalky Series over the underlying GBo (anhydritic) layer.

To “cope” with ongoing active karst growth beneath and around the Mosul Dam, a continuous grouting programme was planned, even during dam construction, and continues today, on a six days per week basis. It pumps tens of thousands of tons of concrete into expanding karst features each year (Sissakian and Knutsson, 2014; Milillo et al., 2016). The dam was completed in June 1984, with a postulated operational life of 80 years. Due to insufficient grouting and sealing in and below the dam foundation, numerous karst features, as noted above, continue to enlarge in size and quantity, so causing serious problems for the ongoing stability of the dam. The increase in hydraulic gradient created by a wall of water behind the dam has accelerated the rate of karstification in the past 40 years.

Since the late 1980s, the status of the dam and its projected collapse sometime within the next few decades has created ongoing nervousness for the people of Mosul city and near surroundings. All reports on the dam since the mid 1980s have underlined the need for ongoing grouting and monitoring and effective planning of the broadcasting of a situation where collapse is imminent. For “Saddam’s dam” the question is not if, but when, the dam will collapse. To alleviate the effects of the dam collapse, Iraqi authorities have started to build another “Badush Dam” south of Mosul Dam so that it can stop or reduce the effects of the first flood wave. However this new dam has a projected cost in excess of US$ ten billion and so lies beyond the financial reach of the current Iraqi government. Problems related to the dam increased with the takeover of the region by the forces of ISIL.

Today, the Mosul dam is subsiding at a linear rate of ~15 mm/year compared to 12.5 mm/year subsidence rate in 2004–2010 (Milillo et al., 2016). Increased subsidence restarted at the end of 2013 after re-grouting operations slowed and at times stopped. The causes of the observed linear subsidence process of the dam wall can be found in the human activities that have promoted the evaporite–subsidence development, primarily in gypsum deposits and may enable, in case of continuous regrouting stop, unsaturated water to flow through or against evaporites deposits, allowing the development of small to large dissolution cavities.

Large vertical movements that typified the dam wall have resulted from the dissolution of extensive gypsum strata previously mapped beneath the Mosul dam. Increased subsidence rate over the past five years has been due to periods when there was little or no regrouting underlying the dam basement. Dam subsidence currently seems to follow a linear behavior but on can not exclude a future acceleration due to increased gypsum dissolution speed and associated catastrophic collapse of the dam (Milillo et al., 2016).

Given the existing geologic knowledge base in the 1980s, in my opinion, one must question the seeming lack of understanding in a group of well-paid consultant engineering firms as to the outcome of building such a major structure, atop what was known to be an active karstifying gypsum succession, sited in a location where failure will threaten multimillion populations in the downstream cities. The same formation that constituted the base to the Mosul dam was known at the time to be associated with ground stability problems atop similar gypsum-cored anticlines in the city of Mosul to the south. Even more concerning to the project rationale should have been the large karst cavities in highly soluble gypsum that were encountered a number of times during feasibility and construction of the dam foundations (Figure 14). Or, perhaps, as Lao Tzu observed many centuries ago, “ ...So the unwanting soul sees what’s hidden, and the ever-wanting soul sees only what it wants.”

Canals, like dams, that leak in gypsum karst areas can trigger subsidence, which can be severe enough to cause retainment failure. In Spain, the Imperial Canal in the Ebro valley, and several canals in the Cinca and Noguera Ribagorzana valleys, which irrigate parts of the Ebro basin, have on numerous occasions failed in this way. Similarly, canals in Syria have suffered from gypsum dissolution and collapse of soils into karstic cavities. Canals excavated in such ground may also alter the local groundwater flow (equivalent to losing streams) and so accelerate internal erosion, or the dissolution processes and associated collapse of cover materials. In the Lesina Lagoon, Italy, a canal was excavated to improve the water exchange between the sea and the lagoon. It was cut through loose sandy deposits and highly cavernous gypsum bedrock, but this created a new base level, so distorting the local groundwater flow. The canal has caused the rapid downward migration of the cover material into pre-existing groundwater conduits, producing a large number of sinkholes that now threaten an adjacent residential area.

Pipelines constructed across karst areas are potential pollution sources and some may pose possible explosion hazards. The utilization of geomorphological maps depicting the karst and subsidence features allied with GIS and karst databases help with the grouting and management of these structures. In some circumstances below-ground leakage {Zechner, 2011 #26} from water supply pipelines can trigger severe karstic collapse events. Where such hazards are identified, such as where a major oil and gas pipeline crosses the Sivas gypsum karst in Turkey, the maximum size of an anticipated collapse can be determined and the pipeline strength increased to cope with the possible problems.


Solving the problem?

Throughout the world, be it in the US, Canada, the UK, Spain, eastern Europe, or the Middle East, it is a fact that weathering of shallow gypsum forms rapidly expanding and stoping caverns, especially in areas of high water crossflow, unsupported roof beams, and unconsolidated overburden and in areas of artificially confined fresh water. Rapid karst formative processes and mechanism will always be commonplace and widespread (Table 2). Resultant karst-associated problems can be both natural and anthropogenically induced or enhanced. It is fact that natural solution in regions of subcropping evaporites is always rapid, and even more so in areas where it is encouraged by human activities, especially increased cycling of water via damming, groundwater pumping, burst pipes, septic systems, agricultural enhancement and uncontrolled storm and waste water runoffs to aquifers.

Typically, the best way to deal with a region of an evaporite karst hazard is to map the regional extent of the shallow evaporite solution front and avoid it (Table 3). In established areas with a karst problem the engineering solutions will need to be designed around hazards that will typically be characterised by short-term onsets, often tied to rapid ground stoping/subsidence events and quickly followed by ground collapse. If man-made buildings of historical significance are to be restored and stabilized in such settings, perhaps it is better to wait until funds are sufficient to complete the job rather than attempt partial stabilization of the worst-affected portions of the feature. Significant infrastructure (including roads, canals and dams) should be designed to avoid such areas when possible or engineered to cope with and/or survive episodes of ground collapse.

A piecemeal approach to dealing with evaporite karst can intensify and focus water crossflows rather than alleviate them. In the words of Nobel prizewinner, Shimon Peres; “If a problem has no solution, it may not be a problem, but a fact - not to be solved, but to be coped with over time.”


References

Alberto, W., M. Giardino, G. Martinotti, and D. Tiranti, 2008, Geomorphological hazards related to deep dissolution phenomena in the Western Italian Alps: Distribution, assessment and interaction with human activities: Engineering Geology, v. 99, p. 147-159.

Amin, A., and K. Bankher, 1997b, Causes of land subsidence in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Natural Hazards, v. 16, p. 57-63.

Amin, A. A., and K. A. Bankher, 1997a, Karst hazard assessment of eastern Saudi Arabia: Natural Hazards, v. 15, p. 21-30.

Biddle, P. G., 1983, Patterns of drying and moisture deficit in the vicinity of trees on clay soils: Geotechnique, v. 33, p. 107-126.

Castañeda, C., F. Gutiérrez, M. Manunta, and J. P. Galve, 2009, DInSAR measurements of ground deformation by sinkholes, mining subsidence, and landslides, Ebro River, Spain: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, v. 34, p. 1562-1574.

Cooper, A. H., 1986, Subsidence and foundering of strata caused by the dissolution of Permian gypsum in the Ripon and Bedale areas, North Yorkshire: Harwood, Gill M., Smith, Denys B. The English Zechstein and related topics. Univ. Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom. Geological Society Special Publications, v. 22, p. 127-139.

Cooper, A. H., 1995, Subsidence hazards due to the dissolution of Permian gypsum in England: Investigation and remediation, in B. F. Beck, ed., Karst Geohazards - Engineering and Environmental Problems in Karst Terrane. Proceedings of the fifth multidisciplinary conference on sinkholes and the environmental impacts of karst, Gatlinburg, Tennessee: Rotterdam, A.A. Balkema, p. 23-29.

Cooper, A. H., 1998, Subsidence hazards caused by the dissolution of Permian gypsum in England: geology, investigation and remediation, in J. G. Maund, and M. Eddleston, eds., Geohazards in Engineering Geology, v. 15: London, Geological Society, London, p. 265-275.

Cooper, A. H., and F. Gutiérrez, 2013, Dealing with gypsum karst problems: hazards, environmental issues, and planning, in J. F. Shroder, ed., Treatise on geomorphology, Elsevier, p. 451-462.

Cooper, A. H., and J. M. Saunders, 2002, Road and bridge construction across gypsum karst in England: Engineering Geology, v. 65, p. 217-233.

Cooper, A. H., and A. C. Waltham, 1999, Subsidence caused by gypsum dissolution at Ripon, North Yorkshire: Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology, v. 32, p. 305-310.

Dahm, T., S. Heimann, and W. Bialowons, 2011, A seismological study of shallow weak micro-earthquakes in the urban area of Hamburg city, Germany, and its possible relation to salt dissolution: Natural Hazards, v. 58, p. 1111-1134.

Davis, A., and P. Rahn, 1997, Karstic gypsum problems at wastewater stabilization sites in the Black Hills of South Dakota: Carbonates and Evaporites, v. 12, p. 73-80.

Driscoll, R., 1983, The influence of vegetation on the swelling and shrinking of clay soils in Britain: Geotechnique, v. 33, p. 93-105.

Elorza, M. G., and F. G. Santolalla, 1998, Geomorphology of the Tertiary gypsum formations in the Ebro Depression (Spain): Geoderma, v. 87, p. 1-29.

Ford, D. C., 1997, Principal features of evaporite karst in Canada: Carbonates and Evaporites, v. 12, p. 15-23.

Frumkin, A., M. Ezersky, A. Al-Zoubi, E. Akkawi, and A.-R. Abueladas, 2011, The Dead Sea sinkhole hazard: Geophysical assessment of salt dissolution and collapse: Geomorphology, v. 134, p. 102-117.

Galve, J. P., F. Gutierrez, P. Lucha, J. Bonachea, J. Remondo, A. Cendrero, M. Gutierrez, M. J. Gimeno, G. Pardo, and J. A. Sanchez, 2009, Sinkholes in the salt-bearing evaporite karst of the Ebro River valley upstream of Zaragoza city (NE Spain) Geomorphological mapping and analysis as a basis for risk management: Geomorphology, v. 108, p. 145-158.

Garleff, K., H. Kugler, A. V. Poschinger, H. Sterr, H. Strunk, and G. Villwock, 1997, Germany, in C. Embleton, and C. Embleton, eds., Geomorphological hazards of Europe, Vol. 5. Developments in Earth Surface Processes, v. 5, p. 147-177.

Guerrero, J., F. Gutiérrez, and J. P. Galve, 2013, Large depressions, thickened terraces, and gravitational deformation in the Ebro River valley (Zaragoza area, NE Spain): Evidence of glauberite and halite interstratal karstification: Geomorphology, v. 196, p. 162-176.

Gutierrez, F., 2010, Hazards associated to karst (Chapter 13), in I. Alcántara-Ayala, and A. S. Goudie, eds., Geomorphological Hazards and Disaster Prevention, Cambridge University Press, p. 161-176.

Gutiérrez, F., 1996, Gypsum karstification induced subsidence - effects on alluvial systems and derived geohazards (Calatayud Graben, Iberian Range, Spain): Geomorphology, v. 16, p. 277-293.

Gutiérrez, F., 2014, Evaporite Karst in Calatayud, Iberian Chain, in F. Gutiérrez, and M. Gutiérrez, eds., Landscapes and Landforms of Spain: World Geomorphological Landscapes, Springer Netherlands, p. 111-125.

Gutiérrez, F., A. Cooper, and K. Johnson, 2008, Identification, prediction, and mitigation of sinkhole hazards in evaporite karst areas: Environmental Geology, v. 53, p. 1007-1022.

Gutiérrez, F., and A. H. Cooper, 2002, Evaporite dissolution subsidence in the historical city of Calatayud, Spain: Damage appraisal and prevention: Natural Hazards, v. 25, p. 259-288.

Gutiérrez, F., M. Parise, J. De Waele, and H. Jourde, 2014, A review on natural and human-induced geohazards and impacts in karst: Earth-Science Reviews, v. 138, p. 61-88.

Jassim, S. Z., A. S. Jibril, and N. M. S. Numan, 1997, Gypsum karstification in the Middle Miocene Fatha Formation, Mosul area, Northern Iraq: Geomorphology, v. 18, p. 137-149.

Johnson, K., 2008, Gypsum-karst problems in constructing dams in the USA: Environmental Geology, v. 53, p. 945-950.

Jones, C. J. F. P., and A. H. Cooper, 2005, Road construction over voids caused by active gypsum dissolution, with an example from Ripon, North Yorkshire, England: Environmental Geology, v. 48, p. 384-394.

Karacan, E., and I. Yilmaz, 1997, Collapse dolines in Miocene gypsum - An example from SW Sivas (Turkey): Environmental Geology, v. 29, p. 263-266.

Kelley, J. R., L. D. Wakeley, S. W. Broadfoot, M. L. Pearson, C. J. McGrath, T. E. McGill, J. D. Jorgeson, and C. A. Talbot, 2007, Geologic Setting of Mosul Dam and Its Engineering Implications: US Army Corps of Engineers; Engineer Research and Development Center Report ERDC TR-07-10.

Martinez, J. D., and R. Boehner, 1997, Sinkholes in glacial drift underlain by gypsum in Nova Scotia, Canada: Carbonates and Evaporites, v. 12, p. 84-90.

Milillo, P., R. Bürgmann, P. Lundgren, J. Salzer, D. Perissin, E. Fielding, F. Biondi, and G. Milillo, 2016, Space geodetic monitoring of engineered structures: The ongoing destabilization of the Mosul dam, Iraq: Nature Open Reports, v. 6, p. 37408.

Paukstys, B., A. H. Cooper, and J. Arustiene, 1999, Planning for gypsum geohazards in Lithuania and England: Engineering Geology, v. 52, p. 93-103.

Sargent, C., and N. R. Goulty, 2009, Seismic reflection survey for investigation of gypsum dissolution and subsidence at Hell Kettles, Darlington, UK: Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, v. 42, p. 31-38.

Shviro, M., I. Haviv, and G. Baer, 2017, High-resolution InSAR constraints on flood-related subsidence and evaporite dissolution along the Dead Sea shores: Interplay between hydrology and rheology: Geomorphology, v. 293, p. 53-68.

Sissakian, V., N. Al-Ansari, and S. Knutsson, 2014, Karstification Effect on the Stability of Mosul Dam and Its Assessment, North Iraq: Engineering and Mining Journal, v. 6, p. 84-92.

Sissakian, V. K., V. K. Al-Ansari, and S. Knutsson, 2015, Karst Forms in Iraq Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, v. 5, p. 1-26.

Soriano, M. A., and J. Simon, 1995, Alluvial dolines in the central Ebro basin, Spain: a spatial and developmental hazard analysis: Geomorphology, v. 11, p. 295-309.

Sprynskyy, M., M. Lebedynets, and A. Sadurski, 2009, Gypsum karst intensification as a consequence of sulphur mining activity (Jaziv field, Western Ukraine): Environmental Geology, v. 57, p. 173-181.

Stafford, K. W., W. A. Brown, T. Ehrhart. Jon, A. F. Majzoub, and J. D. Woodard, 2017, Evaporite karst geohazards in the Delaware Basin, Texas: review of traditional karst studies coupled with geophysical and remote sensing characterization: International Journal of Speleology, v. 46, p. 169-180.

Thierry, P., A. Prunier-Leparmentier, C. Lembezat, E. Vanoudheusden, and J. Vernoux, 2009, 3D geological modelling at urban scale and mapping of ground movement susceptibility from gypsum dissolution: The Paris example (France): Engineering Geology, v. 105, p. 51-64.

Tolmachev, V., A. Ilyin, B. Gantov, M. Leonenko, V. Khomenko, and I. A. Savarensky, 2003, The main results of engineering karstology research conducted in Dzerzhinsk, Russia (1952-2002), in B. Beck, ed., Sinkholes and the engineering and environmental impacts of karst: proceedings of the ninth multidisciplinary conference, September 6-10, 2003, Huntsville, Alabama, American Society of Civil Engineers, p. 502-516.

Tolmachev, V., and M. Leonenko, 2011, Experience in Collapse Risk Assessment of Building on Covered Karst Landscapes in Russia, in P. E. van Beynen, ed., Karst Management, Springer Netherlands, p. 75-102.

Torabi-Kaveh, M., M. Heidari, and M. Miri, 2012, Karstic features in gypsum of Gachsaran Formation (case study; Chamshir Dam reservoir, Iran): Carbonates and Evaporites, v. 27, p. 291-297.

Toulemont, M., 1984, Le karst gypseux du Lutetien superieur de la region parisienne; caracteristiques et impact sur le milieu urbain: Revue de Geologie Dynamique et de Geographie Physique, v. 25, p. 213-228.

Trzhtsinsky, Y., 2002, Human-induced activation of gypsum karst in the southern Priangaria (East Siberia, Russia): Carbonates and Evaporites, v. 17, p. 154-158.

Waltham, T., F. Bell, and M. Culshaw, 2005, Sinkholes and Subsidence: Karst and Cavernous Rocks in Engineering and Construction: Berlin Heidelberg, Springer Praxis Books, 382 p.

Wang, G., G. You, and Y. Xu, 2008, Investigation on the Nanjing Gypsum Mine Flooding, in H. Liu, A. Deng, and J. Chu, eds., Geotechnical Engineering for Disaster Mitigation and Rehabilitation: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference GEDMAR08, Nanjing, China 30 May – 2 June, 2008: Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p. 920-930.

Warren, J. K., 2016, Evaporites: A compendium (ISBN 978-3-319-13511-3): Berlin, Springer, 1854 p.

Warren, J. K., 2017, Salt usually seals, but sometimes leaks: Implications for mine and cavern stabilities in the short and long term: Earth-Science Reviews, v. 165, p. 302-341.

Yaoru, L., and A. H. Cooper, 1997, Gypsum karst geohazards in China, in B. F. Beck, and J. B. Stephenson, eds., Engineering Geology and hydrogeology of Karst Terrains: Proceedings of the Sixth Multidisciplinary Conference on Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst Springfield, Missouri, 6-9 April 1997, Balkema, Rotterdam, p. 117-126.

Yilmaz, I., M. Marschalko, and M. Bednarik, 2011, Gypsum collapse hazards and importance of hazard mapping: Carbonates and Evaporites, v. 26, p. 193-209.

Zechner, E., M. Konz, A. Younes, and P. Huggenberger, 2011, Effects of tectonic structures, salt solution mining, and density-driven groundwater hydraulics on evaporite dissolution (Switzerland): Hydrogeology Journal, v. 19, p. 1323-1334.

 

Dissolving salt (1 of 5): Landforms

John Warren - Thursday, August 31, 2017

 

Introduction

This series of five articles discuss effects of nearsurface evaporite dissolution at various scales and times, in terms of; 1) landform expression, 2) evaporite-hosted caves and speleothems 3) natural evaporite karst geohazards 4)Anthropogenically enhanced karst features, 5) economic associations tied to evaporite paleokarst (hydrocarbon and metal).

As salt dissolves in the subsurface, it creates void spaces of various sizes and shapes into which overlying strata can drape or brecciate, so creating characteristic landforms at both local (m to km) and regional (km to tens of km) scales (Figure 1). Water sources producing these features can be shallow unconfined meteoric or marine, confined shallow or deeply circulating meteoric, or hypogene, basinal and hydrothermal. Solution-related evaporitic landforms can be either active karst or palaeokarst features. Paleokarst refers to ancient karstic features that are no longer active and tied to ancient basin flushing hydrologies and now buried land surfaces. Active karst is responding to the modern ambient hydrology and typifies landscape elements discussed in the following section.


Evaporite solution karst landforms overprint nearby carbonate or evaporite strata, with many descriptive features and terms are common to textures and geometries across both host lithologies. Evaporite-related karst includes many varieties of karren, sinkholes (dolines and caves), blind valleys, poljes and subsidence basins (Ford and Williams, 2007; Warren, 2016). Bedrock exposures of gypsum or salt at a finer scale are sculpted into irregular curved and grooved surfaces called rillenkarren or other varieties of gravity-oriented solution flutes (Macaluso and Sauro, 1996; Stenson and Ford, 1993).

Local-scale karst geometries that define evaporite-related subsidence range in lateral extent from the metre-scale cones of suffosion karst to collapse cones to kilometre-scale doline depressions (Figure 1). In regions of soil-mantled outcrops of bedded evaporites, these features tend to occur at higher densities, within or near broad subsidence valleys. In the context of the lateral extents of evaporite-related landforms, it is also useful to separate landforms associated with the dissolution of bedded evaporite versus dissolution landforms and namakier residues that occur above variably active salt diapir crests. Features related to dissolving diapirs and namakiers are discussed in an earlier article (Salty Matters, March 10, 2015).

The geometry of the karst set-up hydrology is distinct in sediments above diapiric versus bedded evaporite substrate, and this article focuses on landforms related to a dissolving substrate made up of shallow dipping salt beds. The next section outlines characteristics feature of evaporite karst at the metre to kilometre scale, as defined in Figure 1. Then we will compartmentalise these features using the classification of Gutiérrez et al., 2008, and finally look at three of the more distinctive regions responding to the dissolution of subcropping evaporite beds.

Evaporite solution dolines

Dolines are closed circular to elliptical hollows or depressions, often funnel shaped, with diameters ranging from a few metres to a few kilometres and depths from a metre or so, to hundreds of metres (Figure 1; Ford and Williams, 2007). They indicate subsidence and collapse in underlying salt or carbonate units. Valley sides in larger subsidence dolines can be steep and expose karstified gypsum, or can be gentler slopes covered by soil.

Larger dolines may enclose one or more smaller sinkholes and can be further subdivided into, suffusion, subsidence sag, and collapse dolines (Figure 1). A collapse sinkhole is initiated by collapse of a roof span into an underlying solution cavity. A subsidence sag doline indicates a more diffuse broader and gentler lowering of the ceiling above the dissolving bed. Suffosion dolines are small-width high-density karst features (1-2m diameter) covered and filled with soil and debris that has washed or fallen into closely-spaced fissures cutting into the evaporite bed. They typically indicate that a dissolving salt mass is very close to the landsurface.

Dissolution, collapse and suffosion processes are more active, more rapid, more frequent and more noticeable in regions of shallow evaporite units, compared to carbonate terranes at the same depths. For shallow weathering evaporites versus carbonates, at roughly the same depths in the Perm and Bashkir regions of Russia, Gorbunova (1979) reported doline densities of 32 and 10/km2 respectively.


Suffosion dolines

Suffosion in a karst terrane describes the downward migration of unconsolidated cover deposits through voids. High levels of dispersed impurities (mostly clays and muds, often dolomitic and other dissolution residues) in a rapidly dissolving evaporite mass, means a soil or carapace of insoluble residues quickly covers the subcropping top and edges of a dissolving salt mass (Figures 1a, 2). Downwash transport into growing fissures and voids in the shallow underlying evaporite is via downwashing of fine particles carried by percolating waters, cohesionless granular flows, viscous sediment gravity flows (non-Newtonian), freefall of particles, and sediment-laden water. The carapace is continually undermined by ongoing rapid solution, as residual debris is continually and rapidly washed into the doline crevices into the growing cavities in the evaporite. This creates a unique soil-covered dimpled landscape, which is typified by a high-density doline terrain where the dissolving evaporite is only a metre or so below the landsurface.


Densities of up to 1000 suffosion dolines/km2 occur in many evaporite-cored fold axes or at subcrop contacts of evaporites with other outcropping lithologies. Densities of 1100-1500/km2 have been documented in evaporite karst in the Italian Alps and in regions to the west of Sivas, Turkey (Figure 3; Belloni et al., 1972; Kacaroglu et al., 1997). The inherently high solubility of evaporite salts explains similar densely-packed schlotten depressions and large karren shafts seen in gypsum karst of Antigonish County, Nova Scotia, where extrapolated doline densities in the latter case range up to 10,000/km2 (Martinez and Boeher, 1997). Extrapolated, because such dense networks do not extend over any more than a square kilometre or two and are typically found near retreating escarpment edges underlain by shallow subcropping salts. Such high densities tend to occur in more humid rather than arid areas, with high hydraulic gradients so that the resulting suffosion dolines have diameters around 5 m or less.


Subsidence Dolines

Solution (subsidence) dolines, as described in much of the literature tend to be larger down-warped doline craters or bowl-like subsidence depressions (Figure 1c). In contrast to the numerous small steep-sided suffosion and collapse dolines formed atop shallow subcropping shallow evaporites, these larger, bowl-like dolines can have diameters of 100-500 m and depression depths of 10-20 m or more. Most subsidence sag dolines have a well-developed soil cover and a thick sediment fill, with dissolving salt units found depths measured in tens to hundreds of metres below the land surface (Figure 4). Compared to collapse and suffusion dolines, subsidence or sag dolines have lower angle to near flat slopes into the deeper parts of the doline hollow, the doline walls at the outcrop level are usually hosted in non-evaporites, with the dissolving salt bed lying some distance below the landsurface. Compared to suffusion karst, subsidence dolines occur in regions of more deeply buried evaporites (tens of metres) including; Italy (Belloni et at. 1972; Burri 1986; Ferrarase et al., 2002), Spain (Gutiérrez, 1996) and the Pecos Valley of West Texas and New Mexico (Gustavson et al., 1982; Davies, 1984a, b; Quinlan et al., 1986). At the larger end of the scale of subsidence doline development, a subsidence doline merges into a subsidence basin (Figure 1d). The latter is a large solution hollow that had created enough accommodation space to be considered a small sedimentary basin, generally filling with varying combinations of fluvial lacustrine and other continental sediments.


Collapse dolines

Collapse dolines are steep-sided sinkholes, often defined by cave entrances that contain large blocks of roof material (Figure 1c). They form when solution of an underlying evaporite bed creates a roof span that can no longer be supported by the overlying lithology. Collapse doline walls are frequently asymmetrical; one wall is steep, and the other one is gentle (Figure 5). Soil covered doline floors, when not water covered, tend to display either concave-up or flat geometries. Apart from blocks of the collapsed roof span, active doline floors can be veneered by thin collapse breccias in a matrix of insoluble residues. The high density of dolines in areas of evaporite subcrop and the ubiquity of the associated breccias indicates the inherently higher solubility of the evaporite salts compared with interbedded and overlying carbonates. Active collapse sinkholes atop shallow bedded evaporites typify terminations of dry arroyos in many deserts and may also line up along active or former river courses, as in Bottomless Lake State Park, New Mexico (Figure 6).


Sinkhole Classification

Following the definitions of Waltham et al. (2005), Gutiérrez et al. (2008) constructed a nongenetic classification of subsidence dolines or sinkholes (Figure 7). It is based on two observations that refer to the material affected by downward gravitational movements (cover, bedrock or caprock) and the primary type of process involved (collapse, suffosion or sagging). The classification also applies to both evaporite and carbonate karst. The term “cover” refers to allogenic unconsolidated deposits or residual soil material, bedrock to karst rocks and caprock to overlying non-karst rocks. Collapse indicates the brittle deformation of soil or rock material either by brecciation or the downward migration deposits through conduits and its progressive settling, while sagging is the ductile flexure (bending) of sediments caused by the lack of basal support. In practice, more than one material type and several processes can be involved in the generation of sinkholes. These more complex sinkholes can be described using combinations of the proposed terms with the dominant material and/or process followed by the secondary one (e.g. cover and bedrock collapse sinkhole, bedrock sagging and collapse sinkhole).


The cover material may be affected by any of three subsidence mechanisms. The progressive corrosional lowering of the rockhead may cause the gradual settling of the overlying deposits by sagging, producing cover sagging sinkholes. An important applied aspect is that the generation of these sinkholes does not require the formation of cavities These depressions arc commonly shallow, have poorly defined edges and may reach several hundred metres across.

Cover deposits may migrate downward into fissures and conduits developed in the rockhead by action of a wide range of processes collectively designated as suffusion: downwashing of particles by percolating waters, cohesion-less granular flows, viscous gravity flows (non-Newtonian), fall of particles, and sediment-laden water flows. The downward transport of the cover material through pipes and fissures may produce two main types of sinkholes depending on the rheological behaviour of the mantling deposits. Where the cover behaves as a ductile or loose granular material, it may settle gradually as undermining by suffosion progresses. This creates sags and slumps in the overburden materials. Where cover behaves in a more brittle manner, collapse breccias form.

Sinkholes that result from the combination of several subsidence processes and affect more than one type of material are described by combinations of the different terms with the dominant material or process followed by the secondary one (e.g. bedrock sagging and collapse sinkhole). The mechanism of collapse includes any brittle gravitational deformation of cover and bedrock material, such as upward stoping of cavities by roof failure, development of well-defined failure planes and rock brecciation. They define suffosion as the downward migration of cover deposits through dissolutional conduits accompanied by ductile settling. Sagging is the ductile flexure of sediments caused by differential corrosional lowering of the rockhead or interstratal karstification of the soluble bedrock. Sag plays a major role in the generation of sinkholes across broad areas underlain by shallow dissolving evaporites (not included in previous genetic classifications mostly based on carbonate karst). Likewise, collapse processes are more significant in extent and rate in areas underlain by evaporites than in carbonate karst, primarily due to the order of magnitude greater solubility of the evaporites and the lower mechanical strength and ductile rheology of gypsum and salt rocks (Warren, 2016).


Broader-scale evaporite landforms

There are some unique aspects to regional landform and doline density associations above dissolving evaporites because; 1) halite, and to a lesser extent anhydrite, units are many times more soluble than carbonate or siliciclastic strata, and 2) matrix in most salt units away from its retreating edges tends to remain impervious even as salt masses approach the landsurface (Figure 8; melting block of ice analogy, see Warren, 2016). Such features form at the basin-scale in regions where an ancient salt bed is moving from the mesogenetic to the telogenetic realm, especially in regions where mountains are growing adjacent to the uplifted evaporite basin. The broader-scale landscape features not seen in carbonate karst in similar regional settings are; 1) laterally migrating subsidence basins (Figure 8a) and 2) regions of breccia chimneys (Figure 8b).

Subsidence basins

A subsidence basin is a large (tens of kilometres width) solution hollow that creates enough accommodation space to be considered a small sedimentary basin with widths measured in tens of kilometres (Figure 8a). In a continental setting, the basin is filling with varying combinations of fluvial and lacustrine sediments.

Subsidence troughs are large-scale elongate depositional depressions created by interstratal solution along the dissolving edge of shallow dipping ancient uplifted salt bodies. The largest solution-induced depositional basins tend to occur along the margins of the great interstratal halite deposits, creating a solution form that may be represented by a shallow retreating salt slope at the surface, with a laterally migrating monoclinal drape of beds in the vicinity of a salt scarp, which is defined the dissolving edge of the underlying salt bed or beds. Subsidence basins are filled or partly filled by clastic sediments (Olive, 1957; Quinlan, 1978; Simpson, 1988). If the subsidence zones atop a retreating salt edge lack a significant volume of sediment fill, it called is a subsidence trough, as seen in the vicinity of the outcropping edge of the Jurassic Hith Anhydrite in Saudi Arabia (see part 2).

Salt-edge leaching of shallow dipping salt underscores a set of self-perpetuating processes. Fractures created by the collapse of overburden and intrasalt beds contribute to an expanding accommodation space generated by salt cavities and the lateral retreat of the salt scarp. The ongoing salt dissolution provides new fissures and sinks that act as additional conduits for further percolation of meteoric or upwelling of undersaturated basinal waters into the salt. This, in turn, instigates yet more salt solution in the vicinity of the collapse and typically, so creating an elongate corridor of subsidence at the surface, which can extend for many kilometres parallel to the dissolving salt edge

Hence, large solution-induced depositional basins and monoclines outline the edges of the great interstratal salt deposits of the world. Depression corridors some 5-500 km long, 5-250 km wide, with up to 100 to 500 m of subsidence induced relief and sediment fill define saline karst plains along the edges of bedded and dissolving saline giants in the Devonian evaporite subcrop of Canada (Figure 9b; De Mille et al., 1964; Tsui and Cruden 1984; Christiansen and Sauer, 2002; Tozer et al., 2014; Broughton et al., 2017), the Permian Basin of New Mexico, Oklahoma and Texas (Figure 9a; Anderson, 1981; Davies, 1984a, b; Bachman, 1984), the Perm region of Russia (Gorbunova, 1979) and the Jurassic Hith region of Saudi Arabia (Amin and Bankher, 1997a, b;). Associated regolith and sediment infill typically reduces the regional solution edge landscape to a few tens of metres of relief.

Salt Breccia Chimneys

Undersaturated waters not only influence the dissolving edges of a shallow-dipping salt bed, but can also cut up through the salt as a series of salt chimneys, located well out in the salt basin, with diameters between 20 and 250 m. Most are plumb vertical, with reported heights ranging from tens of metres to kilometers. Higher examples have usually stoped upward through one or more cover formations, which may include siliciclastics, coal measures, extrusive volcanics, etc. (Figure 9b). Breccia pipes in an evaporite mass may exhibit one of four possible states (Figure 8b): a) Active, and propagating upwards towards the surface, with fault and collapse bounded edges, but not yet expressed at the surface - a blind chimney; b) Active or inactive, expressed at the surface as a closed depression or a depression with a surface outflow channel; c) Inactive, and buried by later strata - paleokarst chimney; d) Inactive and standing up as a positive relief feature on the landsurface, because the breccia (generally cemented) is more resistant to weathering than the upper cover strata - so forming a residual pipe with positive relief. Some upstanding features are firmly cemented and resistant structure, such as the castiles above an erosional plain in the Delaware Basin of Texas (Hill, 1990)

Downward flexure in the uppermost strata atop a growing pipe tends to form a bowl of subsidence and a sag doline structure.

In some intrasalt pipes, the halite or gypsum is entirely removed, leaving only an accumulation of insolubles and collapsed breccia blocks. In others, portions of the less soluble salts can remain in the pipe at the level of the mother salt. Mature pipes are typically filled by a jumble of intrasalt and suprasalt breccia blocks. In some, a lower brecciated zone is succeeded by an upper zone in which the overlying strata failed as a coherent block, settling downwards via a cylindrical pattern of steep to vertical faults with downthrows of up to 200 m. Such variably filled and zoned salt breccia chimneys have created one type of barren zone in the potash ores of the Prairie Evaporite in Canada, and we shall discuss this in detail in part 5(economic associations).

Most breccia pipes originate via a point-source dissolution breakthrough of a halite bed (occasionally gypsum or anhydrite) and are located above a fracture junction, an anticlinal crest, or a buried reef that channels groundwater into a local area in the salt (Figure 8b). Hence, salt breccia chimneys and pipes form best where there is an artesian head to create subsalt pressures. In the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin the head comes from the adjacent uplifted Rocky Mountains, while the Delaware and Guadalupe Mountains play a similar role in the Delaware Basin. A pipe creates anomalous chemical interfaces with adjacent and overlying strata and so may be targets for the later precipitation of economic ores, including uranium and base metals (part 5).


Delaware Basin, West Texas

The Delaware Basin of West Texas and southeast New Mexico, in the southwest portion of the Permian Basin, contains bedded evaporites of the Late Permian Castile, Salado and Rustler Formations (Figure 9a). Outcrops and subcrops of these three formations constitute an area of widespread subsidence troughs, collapse sinks, dolines and breccia chimneys, all created by ongoing removal of underlying bedded Permian salts. The Delaware is an eastward-dipping basin, mainly surrounded by the Capitan Reef and its equivalents (Figure 9a). The original extent of the evaporites in the basin was much greater than today due to ongoing salt dissolution.

The area called the “Gypsum Plain” of Texas lies to the west of the Pecos River and comprises about 2,600 square kilometres of subcropping gypsum of the Castile Formation (Olive, 1957; Quinlan, 1978; Kirkland and Evans, 1980; Anderson, 1981; Stafford et al., 2008a,b; Holt and Powers, 2010). South of Carlsbad and Carlsbad Caverns, the plain exhibits many small examples of solution subsidence troughs, typically 0.7–15 km in length, 100–1500 m wide, but no more than 5–10 m deep (Figure 9a: Stafford et al., 2008a). The plain is also where the “Castile” landforms are found and indicate an overprint of bacterial and thermochemical sulphate reduction (Kirkland and Evans, 1976). Additional gypsum outcrops are present to the east in the Rustler Hills and to the north in Reeves County, Texas. Permian strata in region of the "Gypsum Plain" once contained significant volumes of halite that were dissolved well before the evaporite succession reached the landsurface.


In the centre of the Delaware Basin, the thick evaporites of the Castile and Salado Formations retain their halite beds as do the thinner evaporites of the overlying Rustler Formation. All are underlain by relatively permeable carbonates and siliciclastics, including some prolific hydrocarbon reservoirs in Permian backreef of the Central Basin Platform (Figure 10). Reef mounds, fractures and faults in these underlying sediments have provided focused conduits for upward stoping breccia chimneys through the buried evaporites as well as the subsurface formation of now-exhumed Castiles to the west. An eastward-flowing deeply-circulating regional artesian hydrology, in combination with centripetal escape of buoyant hydrocarbon-rich basinal waters, drives the formation of these chimneys, with their surface expressions occurring in areas such as the Wink Sink (chain of breached chimneys) and the Gypsum Plain (Castiles).

The upper sides of the shallow dipping salt beds are also affected by the hydrologies of the zone of active phreatic circulation. The Pecos River has migrated back and forth across the top of subcropping evaporites for much of the Tertiary. Its ancestral positions drove substantial salt dissolution, now evidenced by large sediment-filled subsidence basins and troughs in the centre of the Delaware Basin (Figures 9b, 10). The regional eastward dip of the Delaware basin sediments means first halite, and then gypsum has disappeared along the updip eastern edge of the basin. Relatively undisturbed salt remains along the more deeply buried western side of the basin that abuts and covers the Central Basin Platform. Bachman and Johnson (1973) estimate the horizontal migration rate of the dissolution front across the basin as high as 10-12 km per million years so that more than 50% of the original halite is gone. Multiple smaller examples of sediment-filled subsidence troughs occur at the edge of the gypsum plain of the Delaware Basin south of Carlsbad Caverns, where depositional troughs, 0.7 to 15 km in length, 100 to 1,500 m wide and no more than 5-10 m deep, are well documented, as are subsidence sinks within the subsidence swales, such as Bottomless Lake, which is a region where the watertable intersects a collapse chimney (Figure 10c; Quinlan et al. 1986).

The San Simon swale is a 25 km2 depression defining a residual karst feature atop the Capitan Reef on the northeastern margin of the Basin (Figures 9a, 10a, b). San Simon Sink sits atop a subsidence chimney within the San Simon swale; it is the lowest point in the depression and is some 30 m deep and 1 km2 in area. It, in turn, encloses a secondary collapse sink some a few hundred metres across and 10 metres deep (Figure 10b). During a storm in 1918, the San Simon sinkhole formed as a gaping hole about 25 metres across and 20 metres deep in the lower part of the sink. In one night, nearly 23,000 cubic metres of soil and bedrock disappeared into the collapse cavern. Annular rings that cut the surface around the San Simon sinkhole today suggest ongoing subsidence and readjustment of the sinkhole is still occurring in response to earlier collapses. The position of the San Simon sink over the Permian reef crest led Lambert (1983) and many others to suggest that the sinkhole originated as a groundwater cavity breakthrough, atop a series of stoping reef-focused breccia pipes or chimneys. Sinkhole breakouts, which can emerge in a matter of hours, continue to form across this dissolution basin, in some case aided by poorly-monitored brine extraction operations and improperly-cased water wells. But the majority of the sinkholes in the Delaware Basin are natural, not anthropogenically enhanced (Land, 2013).


Nash Draw is a southwesterly trending depression or swale, some 25 km long and 5-15 km wide, at the northern end of the Delaware Basin with its sump in a salt lake (Poker Lake) at the southern end of the draw (Figure 11). The underlying evaporitic Rustler Formation and parts of the Salado Formation have largely dissolved so that more than 100 caves, sinks, fractures, swallow-holes, and tunnels make up a complex local karst topography in the Draw, which is still active today (Figure 11b, c; Bachman, 1981, Powers et al., 2006; Goodbar and Goodbar, 2014).

An extensive drilling program conducted for the nearby WIPP site (now a low-level radioactive waste repository) showed that natural dissolution of halite in the Rustler and upper Salado formations is responsible for the subsidence and overall formation of Nash Draw (Lambert, 1983; Holt and Powers, 2010). To the immediate west of Nash Draw, the WIPP/DOE drilling program defined the formation of a solution trough in the Dewey Lake Redbed; it was created by preferential leaching of halite beds in the Rustler Formation, with interstratal anhydrite and breccia residuals (Figure 12). This dissolution occurred at a level some 400 metres above the salt-encased storage level of the WIPP waste isolation facility and so is not considered a significant risk factor in terms of longterm site stability (Holt and Powers, 2010). A heated scientific (and at times not so scientific!) debate of just how deep surface karst penetrates into the bedded halite of the Salado Formation in the vicinity of the WIPP site continues today.


Further north, near the subcropping western edge of the Northwest Permian Shelf, is Bottomless Lakes State Park, located some 20 kilometres southeast of Roswell. Encircling the lakes are the gypsum, halite and dolomitic redbeds of the Artesia Group and San Andres Formation. Away from the lakes are numerous other sinkholes and collapse dolines, most of which are circular, steep walled or vertical holes, 50-100 metres across and 30-60 metres deep, with the greatest density of features aligned along the eastern side of the Pecos River floodplain (Figure 6). Water in the various sinks that make up the Bottomless Lakes is crystal clear and brackish to saline (6,000-23,000 ppm), attesting to its passage through subsurface layers of gypsum and salt. Although the lakes are around 30 metres deep, dark-green moss and algae coat the bottoms giving the impression of great depth and hence the name of the park (Lea Lake; Figure 10d.). To the west, many of the playas in depressions near Amarillo in the High Plains of Texas have a similar genesis as solution depressions atop dissolving Permian salt, but most do not intersect the regional watertable and so do not hold permanent surface water (Paine, 1994). Further south, near Carlsbad Caverns, there are other subsidence chimneys that form lakes where they intersect the watertable and so are also locally known as “Bottomless” (Figure 9a).


Western Canadian karst

The distribution and timing of chimneys and subsidence troughs created by the subsurface dissolution of the Prairie evaporite are well known and tied to the distribution of oil sands and the quality of potash ores (part 5). Dissolution drape features are more pronounced nearer the retreating edges of the thick multilayered subsurface Devonian salt succession while breccia chimneys occur above the buried salt successions (Figure 9b). For example, the Rosetown Low and the Regina Hummingbird Trough accumulated more than 100 metres of depression trough and drape sediment during interstratal dissolution of the underlying Prairie salt (Devonian) in southern Saskatchewan, especially in Cretaceous time (Figure 13a,b; DeMille et al., 1964; Simpson, 1988). This evaporite-related Cretaceous subsidence is also the principal control on the distribution of the Athabasca oil sands in subsidence basins along the eastern side of the evaporite extent (Tozer et al., 2014). Uplift of the ancestral Rocky Mountains likely created the potentiometric head that drove much of the subsalt aquifer flow. As in the Delaware Basin, the positions of sub-salt reefs and pinnacles focused many of the upwells of deeply circulated meteoric water that ultimately created solution breccia layers and breccia chimneys (Figure 8b).

In various circum-salt subsidence troughs, now filled or partially filled with late Mesozoic and Tertiary sediment thicks, the concurrence of a supra-unconformity thick, adjacent to the sub-unconformity feather-edge of a bedded salt sequence, is at a scale that is easily recognised in seismic and constitutes one of the classic signatures of a salt collapse-induced hydrocarbon trap (Figure 8a). For now, we will focus on the influence of dissolving evaporites on the modern Canadian landscape in regions of active karst, but we will return to the topic of economic hydrocarbon associations with paleokarst in this basin in part 5.

Evaporite karst domes, and laterally extensive solution breccia units, tied to a waxing and waning cover of glacial ice and permafrost, were first documented in Canada in northern Alberta and the Northwest Territories (e.g. De Mille et al., 1964). Karst domes remain as surface features of positive relief once the surrounding evaporite mass has completely dissolved and are outlined by megabreccia with caverns. Unlike breccia chimneys, the cores of evaporitic karst domes can expose blocks from below, as well as above the original bedded and folded evaporite level. The evaporitic karst domes in western Canada are related to the stratigraphic level of former bedded salts; elsewhere in the world others are the remains of now dissolved salt thrusts, diapirs and allochthons (see diapiric breccias and rauhwacke discussion in Warren, 2016). Hence, domes and residual units are dramatic landscape features in the gypsiferous terrain of northern Alberta, Canada (Wigley et al., 1973; Tsui and Cruden, 1984). Similar features, tied to the dissolution of bedded evaporites, typify the Arkhangelsk gypsum-residue karst region inland of the Barents Sea coast of Russia (Korotkov, 1974).

Canadian karst domes range from 10 to 1000 m or more in length or diameter, and can rise to 25 m above the surrounding land surface. Many domes are highly fractured, with individual overburden blocks displaced by heaving and sliding, with the residual gypsum showing well-developed flow foliation.

At the extreme end of disturbance and dissolution range, the domes breccias are megabreccias; positive relief features made up of collapsed or even upthrust jumbles of large blocks, some the size of houses. The largest reported Canadian megabreccia example is in a steep-limbed anticline that extends along the shore of Slave Lake for a distance of 30 km. It is up to 175m in height with a brecciated crestal zone that is marked by a ‘chaotic structure and trench-like lineaments’ (Aitken and Cook 1969).

These brecciated landforms develop upon a distinctive geological association in the central Mackenzie Valley region, NWT, at a stratigraphic level equivalent to anhydrites and halites in the deeper subsurface (Hamilton and Ford, 2002 ). In widespread outcrops the breccia unit is formally named the Bear Rock Formation, when covered by consolidated strata it is termed the Fort Norman Fm (Meijer Drees, 1993; Law, 1971). It is centred in Late Silurian-Early Devonian strata and defines an outcrop and subcrop belt more than 50,000 km2 in extent. In core, the Fort Norman Formation is 250-350 m or more in thickness. It consists of a thin upper limestone (Landry Member), a central Brecciated Member and, in some cores, undisturbed lower sequences of inter­bedded dolostones and anhydrite remnants. It is conformably overlain by 90-150 m of limestones and calcareous shales (Hume Formation-Eifelian). This evaporite dissolution breccia is possibly derived from the dissolution of not one, but several subcropping Devonian salt layers. That is, although not much discussed in the literature, the mother level may not be tied to a single stratigraphic layer.

Typical till-covered collapse and subsidence karst of the Bear Lake Formation can develop through the Hume and higher formations as a consequence of interstratal dissolution of the salt layers in the Fort Norman and equivalents, where meteoric groundwater circulation and sulphate dissolution have been recorded at core depths as great as 900 m (Figure, 14, 15).


In the NWT the Bear Rock Formation is considered to host to much of this widespread solution breccia, which up to 250 m thick. If present, the Landry Member is a brecciated limestone no more than 20 m thick. The main breccia level forms a visually set of outcrops made up of chaotic, vuggy mixtures of limestone, dolomite, and dedolomite clasts, variably cemented by later calcites, with small residual clasts and secondary encrustations of gypsum. Pack breccias in the Bear Creek and its equivalents displaying rubble fabric (predominant), crackle or mosaic fabric, are common and cliff-forming (Stanton, 1966; James & Choquette, 1988). Float breccias are rarer and tend to be recessive. Meijer Drees (1985) classifies the Bear Rock Formation as a late diagenetic solution breccia created by meteoric waters. Hamilton (1995) shows that calcite, dolomite and sulphate dissolution, plus dedolomitisation with calcite precipitation, are continuing today. They are re-working older breccia fabrics, creating new ones, as well as forming a suite of surficial karstic depressions and subsidence troughs ranging from metres to several km in scale.

The Canadian example constitutes an important set of observations that also relate to many other regions with widespread, basin-scale evaporite dissolution breccias, namely; evaporite solution breccias are multistage and can encompass significant time intervals. Similar-appearance evaporite solution breccias can form at different times in a basin's burial history, from different superimposed undersaturated hydrologies. Individual breccias in any single sample are typically responses to multistage, multi-time diagenetic-fluid overprints. This is also why potash ores in the Prairie evaporite preserve evidence of multiple times of potash mobilisation and mineralogy (part 5; Warren, 2016).

Detailed evaporite karst landform studies have focused on Bear Rock Mountain (type area) and the Mackay Range, which are outlying highlands on the east and west banks respectively of the Mackenzie River, and terrain between Carcajou Canyon and Dodo Canyon in the Mackenzie Mountains (Hamilton, 1995). These sites were covered by the Laurentide Ice Sheet (Wisconsinan) but were close to its western, sluggish margin. They are at the boundary between widespread and continuous permafrost in the ground today and can display some year-round groundwater circulation via taliks. Thaw/freeze and solifluction processes compete with ongoing evaporite dissolution to mould the topography.


Regionally, the principal karst landforms hosted in and above the Bear Rock Formation are varieties of sinkholes, blind valleys, solution-subsidence troughs and fault-bounded depressions (e.g. Figures 14, 15). Sinkholes range from single colla­pse features a few metres in diameter to merged or compound dolines up to 1.5 km2 and 100 m deep. Smaller individual sinkholes and collapse dolines may retain seasonal meltwater ponds, and there are permanent lakes draining to marginal ponors in some of the larger subsidence troughs. Blind valleys have developed where modern surface streams flow for several km into the evaporite karst zone from adjoining rocks. There are many relict, wholly dry valleys that may have been created by glacial meltwaters. Subsidence troughs have developed at the surface along contacts between the Bear Rock breccias and underlying, massive dolostones that are typically gently dipping. In the centre of the Mackay Range and at Bear Rock itself are solution depressions formed where the breccias make-up hanging-wall strata on steeply inclined fault planes on the collapse or pipe edge. The Mackay example is 3.2 km long, 1.0 km wide and-160 m deep (Ford, 1998).

Where patches of the Landry Member survive above the main breccia level(s), they are often broken into large, separate slabs that tilt into adjoining depressions in sharply differing directions, creating a very distinctive topography of dissolution draping and block rotation (see also Dahl Hit in Warren, 2016). Some slabs are rotated through 80-90°. Ridges (inter-sinkhole divides) that are wholly within the main breccias often display stronger cementation, represented by pinnacles as much as 30 m high The many sinking streams pass through the permafrost via taliks and emerge as sub-permafrost springs at stratigraphic contacts or topographic low points.

According to Hamilton (1995), the variety and intensity of karst landform assemblages on the Bear Rock Formation are like no other in Canada, and he notes he had not seen or read of very similar intensive karst topographies elsewhere. He attributes their distinctiveness to repeated evaporite dissolution and brecciation, with dedolomitisation and local case hardening, throughout the Tertiary and Quaternary, with these processes occurring multiple times in mountainous terrains subject to episodes of glaciation, permafrost formation and decay, and to vigorous periglacial action.

The spectacular karst domes that typify dolines and glacially associated surfaces atop an evaporite subcrop and are particularly obvious in regions of anticlinal salt-cored structures within regions of widespread permafrost. The accumulation of ground ice in initial fractures in the evaporite layer probably contributes to the heaving, folding and other displacement of breccia fragments in the dome. Tsui and Cruden (1984) attributed the examples that they studied in the salt plains of Wood Buffalo National Park Canada (Lat. 59-60°N) to hydration processes operating on subcropping bedded gypsum during the postglacial period. Ford and Williams (2007) argued such features indicate local injection of gypsum residuals during times of rapidly changing glacial ice loading. Whether they are created by glacial unloading/reworking or are a type of gravitationally-displaced dissolution breccia in a permafrost region is debatable; that in Canada they are a widespread type of evaporite karst residue is not. They characterise those parts of the permafrost-influenced region defined by dissolution of shallow subcropping folded Devonian salts in Northern Alberta, where the evaporites are typically exposed in anticlinal crests are today still retain fractionated gypsum residuals.

And so, in addition to widespread breccias hoisting karst domes, there are numerous natural collapse dolines atop dissolving shallow salt beds. A classic example is the water filled doline some km NE of Norman Wells (Figure 15).


Holbrook Anticline, Arizona

Subsidence driven by natural salt solution at depth generates regional-scale drape or monoclinal folding in strata atop the retreating salt edge. This is the corollary of the formation of a subsidence trough (Figure 16a). The 70-km long dissolution front in the Permian Supai salt of Arizona is defined by more than 500 sinkholes, fissures, chimneys and subsiding depressions some 40-50m across and 20-30m deep (Neal, 1995; Johnson, 2005). Away from the main dissolution zone the northeasterly-dipping Schnebly Hill Formation (aka Supai Salt) is composed of up to 150 metres of bedded halite, with local areas of sylvite along its northern extent (Figure 16a). Atop the solution front, there are a number of topographic depressions with playa lakes that in total cover some 300 km2. Salt-dissolution induced features to include areas known as; The Sinks, Dry Lake Valley, and the McCauley Sinks (Neal et al. 1998; Martinez et al. 1998). The Sinks region includes more than 20 steep-sided caprock sinkholes, with some that are more than 100 metres across and up to 30 metres deep (Figure 16b). The McCauley Sinks are the likely surface expression of compound breccia pipes and chimneys (Neal and Johnson, 2002).

Regional expanses of Supai Salt removal produce a regional gravity depression, largely coincident with a surface topographic depression, where there is as much as 100 metres of collapse and topographic displacement. The solution front is essentially coincident with the updip end of the Holbrook Anticline, a flexure defined by dip reversal in an otherwise northeasterly dipping succession (Figure 16a).

Rather than orogenically driven, the Holbrook Anticline is a subsidence-induced monoclinal flexure created by the northeasterly migrating dissolution front (Figure 16a). It may be the largest single solution-collapse fold structure in the world (Neal, 1995). The reverse dip of the flexure directly overlies the salt-dissolution front and marks the location of two major collapse depressions known as The Sinks and Dry Lake Valley, both occur where salt is within 300 m of the surface (Peirce, 1981). Although it has periodically held surface water, reports of several hundred acre-feet of flood water in the Dry Lake Valley playa draining overnight supports the notion of active fissure and cavern formation related to salt removal at depth. Major surface drainage events took place in 1963, 1979, 1984 and 1995, with more than 50 new sinkholes forming in the valley during that period. The continuing rapid appearance of new sinkholes testifies to the ongoing nature of dissolution in the underlying evaporites. According to Neal (1995), dissolution front features began forming in the landscape in the Pliocene and continue to form today.

The caprock collapse sinkholes centre in the Coconino Sandstone bed that overlie the salt, which is located 200-300 metres below the at-surface features. These caprock sinkholes define regions of focused breccia pipe development and discreet upward cavity migration (chimney stoping). The underlying salt is bedded and there are no indications of halokinesis anywhere in the basin. Sinkhole regions lie just ahead of a dissolution front that is migrating downdip, driven by the widespread dissolution of halite.

Other karst features attributed to evaporite dissolution in the Holbrook basin are; pull-apart fissures, graben sinks (downward-dropped blocks), breccia pipes and plugs, and numerous small depressions with and without sinkholes (Neal et al., 1998, 2001). Interestingly, many of the “karst” features occur in sandstones, not limestones; such caprock collapse sinkholes can form wherever pervasive dissolution has removed the underlying salt, independent of caprock lithology. The presence of the more than 500 karst features in the Holbrook basin, some of which formed in days, evokes practical karst hazard and infrastructure concerns, even in such a sparsely populated region (Martinez et al., 1998).

Implications

Evaporite-related karst landforms are in many ways similar carbonate karst features. But, the much higher solubilities of halite and other evaporite salts compared to limestone and dolomite means there are additional features unique to regions of salt dissolution.

In the subsurface, a bedded evaporite can be composed of thick impervious halite with intrasalt beds composed of anhydrite dolomite and calcite. The edges of this halite bed can dissolve even in the deep mesogenetic (burial) realm, wherever the edge of the salt is in contact with undersaturated waters. Insoluble residues bands start to form and can take the form of a basal anhydrite or a fractionated caprock. If the rise of undersaturated water is focused, a breccia cavern can form, and once it breaches the salt, the cavity will contain collapse blocks of the less soluble intrasalt beds. The cavity can then stope to the surface, forming a breccia pipe. A transtratal breccia pipe can rise through kilometres of overburden before attaining the surface. There is no equivalent process-response in the carbonate realm.Subsidence basins, troughs and megabreccia plains are also features that owe their origins to the rapid dissolution rates inherent to salt bed-fresher water contacts

In a similar fashion, the rapid dissolution of halite in the shallower parts of a salt basin means the evaporite karst features will transition from mesogenetic or bathyphreatic cavern formation to meteoric phreatic to vadose effects. This is the emphasis of the second article in this series, which will discuss processes forming vadose and phreatic caves in evaporites.

References

Aitken, J. D., and D. G. Cook, 1969, Geology, Lake Belot, District of Mackenzie: Geological Survey of Canada Map 6.

Amin, A. A., and K. A. Bankher, 1997a, Karst hazard assessment of eastern Saudi Arabia: Natural Hazards, v. 15, p. 21-30.

Anderson, E. J., 1981, Deep-seated salt dissolution in the Delaware Basin, Texas and New Mexico: in Wells, S.G., Lamber, W., and Callender, J.F., eds., Environmental geology and hydrology in New Mexico: Special Publication 10, New Mexico Geological Society, p. 133-145.

Bachman, G., and R. B. Johnson, 1973, Stability of Salt in the Permian Salt Basin of Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas and New Mexico: U. S. Geol. Surv. Open-File Rept.. v. 4339-4.

Bachman, G. O., 1981, Geology of Nash Draw, Eddy County, New Mexico.: U. S. Geol. Surv. Open-File Rept. 81-3.

Bachman, G. O., 1984, Regional geology of Ochoan evaporites, northern part of Delaware Basin: New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Circular, v. 184, p. 22.

Belloni, S., B. Martins, and G. Orombelli, 1972, Karst of Italy, in M. Herak, and V. T. Springfield, eds., Karst: Important karst regions of the Northern Hemisphere: Amsterdam, Elsevier, p. 85-128.

Broughton, P. L., and D. Cotterill, 2017, Breccia pipe and sinkhole linked fluidized beds and debris flows in the Athabasca Oil Sands: dynamics of evaporite karst collapse-induced fault block collisions: Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology, v. 65, p. 200.

Burri, E., 1986, Various aspects of karstic phenomena in the urbanised area of Gissi and neighbouring areas (southern Abruzzo, Italy): Le Grotte d'Italia, v. 4, p. 143-161.

Christiansen, E. A., and E. K. Sauer, 2001, Stratigraphy and structure of a Late Wisconsinan salt collapse in the Saskatoon Low, south of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada: an update: Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 38, p. 1601-1613.

Davies, P. B., 1984a, DeepSeated Dissolution and Subsidence in Bedded Salt Deposits: doctoral thesis, Stanford University.

Davies, P. B., 1984b, Structural analysis of a deep seated salt dissolution collapse chimney; implications for nuclear waste disposal: Neues Jahrbuch fuer Mineralogie, Abhandlungen, v. 149, p. 163-175.

De Mille, G., J. R. Shouldice, and H. W. Nelson, 1964, Collapse structures related to evaporites of the Prairie Formation, Saskatchewan: Geological Society America Bulletin, v. 75, p. 307-316.

Ferrarase, F., T. Macaluso, G. Madonia, P. A., and U. Sauro, 2002, Solution and recrystallisation processes and associated landforms in gypsum outcrops of Sicily: Geomorphology, v. 49, p. 25-453.

Ford, D., and P. D. Williams, 2007, Karst hydrology and Geomorphology: New York, John Wiley and Sons, Ltd, 562 p.

Ford, D. C., 1998, Principal features of evaporite karst in Canada: Suppl. Geogr. Fis. Dinam. Quat. III, Proceedings of fourth International Conference on Geomorphology, Italy 1997:Karst Geomorphology, v. 12, p. 11-19.

Goodbar, J., and A. Goodbar, 2014, A Method to Investigate Karst Groundwater Flow in Nash Draw Eddy County, New Mexico To Delineate Potential Impacts of Potash Industry Discharge and Runoff U.S. Geological Survey Karst Interest Group; Conference Paper April 2014 held at Carlsbad New Mexico.

Gorbunova, K. A., 1979, Gidratatsiya angidrita i soputstvuyushchiye yey yavleniya: Koval'chuk, A. I. Karst i gidrogeologiya Predural'ya. Akad. Nauk Sssr, Ural. Nauchn. Tsentr, Inst. Geol. Geokhim., Tr.

Gustavson, T. C., W. W. Simpkins, A. Alhades, and A. D. Hoadley, 1982, Evaporite dissolution and development of karst features on the Rolling Plains of the Texas Panhandle: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, v. 7, p. 545-563.

Gutiérrez, F., 1996, Gypsum karstification induced subsidence - effects on alluvial systems and derived geohazards (Calatayud Graben, Iberian Range, Spain): Geomorphology, v. 16, p. 277-293.

Gutiérrez, F., J. Guerrero, and P. Lucha, 2008, A genetic classification of sinkholes illustrated from evaporite paleokarst exposures in Spain: Environmental Geology, v. 53, p. 993-1006.

Hamilton, J., and D. Ford, 2002, Karst geomorphology and hydrogeology of the Bear Rock Formation — a remarkable dolostone and gypsum megabreccia in the continuous permafrost zone of northwest Territories, Canada: Carbonates and Evaporites, v. 17, p. 114-115.

Hamilton, J. P., 1995, Karst geomorphology and hydrogeology of the northeastern Mackenzie Mountains, District of Mackenzie, N.W.T., Canada: Doctoral thesis, McMaster University, 532 p.

Hill, C. A., 1990, Sulphuric acid speleogenesis of Carlsbad Caverns and its relationship to hydrocarbons, Delaware Basin, New Mexico and Texas: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 74, p. 1685-1694.

Holt, R. M., and D. W. Powers, 2010, Evaluation of halite dissolution at a radioactive waste disposal site, Andrews County, Texas: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 122, p. 1989-2004.

James, N. P., and P. W. Choquette, 1988, Paleokarst: New York, Springer, 416 p.

Johnson, K. S., 2005, Subsidence hazards due to evaporite dissolution in the United States: Environmental Geology, v. 48, p. 395-409.

Kirkland, D. W., and R. Evans, 1976, Origin of limestone buttes, Gypsum Plain, Culberson County, Texas: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Bulletin, v. 60, p. 2005-2018.

Kirkland, D. W., and R. Evans, 1980, Origin of castiles on the Gypsum Plain of Texas and New Mexico: Guidebook New Mexico Geological Society, v. 31, p. 173-178.

Korotkov, A. N., 1974, Caves of the Pinego-Severodvinskaja karst (in Russain): Geog. Soc. USSR, Leningrad.

Lambert, S. J., 1983, Dissolution of Evaporites in and Around the Delaware Basin, Southeastern New Mexico and West Texas: Sandia Nat’l. Labs. Report SAND82-0461, Albuquerque, NM, 96 pp.

Land, L., 2013, Evaporite Karst in the Permian Basin Region of West Texas and southeastern New Mexico: The Human Impact, in L. Land, D. H. Doctor, and J. B. Stephenson, eds., Sinkholes and the engineering and environmental impacts of karst; Symposium 2; Proceedings of the 13th Multidisciplinary Conference, May 6 through 10, 2013, Carlsbad, New Mexico, p. 113-121.

Law, J., 1971, Regional Devonian Geology and Oil and Gas Possibilities, Upper Mackenzie River Area: Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology, v. 19, p. 437-484.

Macaluso, T., and U. Sauro, 1996, Weathering and Karren on exposed gypsum surfaces: International Journal of Speleology, v. 25, p. 115-126.

Martinez, J. D., K. S. Johnson, and J. T. Neal, 1998, Sinkholes in Evaporite Rocks: American Scientist, v. 86, p. 38.

Meijer Drees, N. C., 1985, Evaporitic deposits of western Canada: Geological Survey of Canada, v. Paper 85-20, p. 118 pp.

Meijer Drees, N. C., 1993, The Devonian succession in the subsurface of the Great Slave and Great Bear Plains, Northwest Territories: Geological Survey of Canada Bulletin, No. 393, 222 p.

Neal, J. T., 1995, Supai salt karst features: Holbrook Basin, Arizona, in B. F. Beck, ed., Karst geohazards: engineering and environmental problems in karst terrane. Proc. 5th conference, Gatlinburg 1995, Balkema, p. 53-59.

Neal, J. T., R. Colpitts, and K. S. Johnson, 1998, Evaporite Karst in the Holbrook Basin, Arizona, in J. Borchers, ed., Joseph F. Poland Symposium on Land Subsidence: Sudbury, MA, Assoc. Eng. Geologists Spec. Pub. 8, p. 373-384.

Neal, J. T., R. Colpitts, and K. S. Johnson, 2001, Evaporite Karst in the Holbrook Basin, Arizona: SMRI (Solution MIning Research Institute) Report presented at the Fall 2001 Meeting 7 - 10 October 2001 Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA.

Olive, W. W., 1957, Solution-subsidence troughs, Castile Formation of Gypsum Plain, Texas and New Mexico: Geological Society of America, v. 68, p. 351-358.

Paine, J. G., 1994, Subsidence beneath a playa basin on the Southern High Plains, U. S.A.; evidence from shallow seismic data: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 106, p. 233-242.

Powers, D. W., R. L. Beauheim, R. M. Holt, and D. L. Hughes, 2006, Evaporite karst features and processes at Nash Draw, Eddy County, New Mexico, in L. Land, V. Lueth, B. Raatz, P. Boston, and D. Love, eds., Caves and Karst of Southeastern New Mexico: New Mexico Geological Society, Guidebook 57, p. 253-266.

Quinlan, J. F., 1978, Types of karst, with emphasis on cover beds in their classification and development: Doctoral thesis, University of Texas at Austin, 323 p.

Quinlan, J. F., R. O. Ewers, J. A. Raty, and K. S. Johnson, 1986, Gypsum karst and salt karst of the United States of America: Le Grotte d'Italia, v. 4, p. 73-92.

Simpson, F., 1988, Solution-generated collapse (SGC) structures associated with bedded evaporites; significance to base-metal and hydrocarbon localization: Geoscience Canada, v. 15, p. 89-93.

Stafford, K. W., R. Nance, L. Rosales-Lagarde, and P. J. Boston, 2008, Epigene and Hypogene Gypsum karst manifestations of the Castile formation: Eddy County, new Mexico and Culbesron County, Texas, USA: International Journal of Speleology, v. 37, p. 83-98.

Stafford, K. W., L. Rosales-Lagarde, and P. J. Boston, 2008, Castile evaporite karst potential map of the Gypsum Plain, Eddy County, New Mexico and Culberson County, Texas: A GIS methodological comparison., v. 70, no. 1, p. 35–46.: Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, v. 70, p. 35-46.

Stanton, R. J., Jr, 1966, The solution brecciation process: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 77, p. 843-847.

Stenson, R. E., and D. C. Ford, 1993, Rillenkarren on gypsum in Nova Scotia: Geographie Physique et Quaternaire, v. 47, p. 239-243.

Tozer, R. S. J., A. P. Choi, J. T. Pietras, and D. J. Tanasichuk, 2014, Athabasca oil sands: mega-trap restoration and charge timing: Bulletin American Association Petroleum Geologists, v. 98, p. 429-447.

Tsui, P. C., and D. M. Cruden, 1984, Deformation associated with gypsum karst in the Salt River Escarpment, northeastern Alberta: Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 21, p. 949-959.

Waltham, T., F. Bell, and M. Culshaw, 2005, Sinkholes and Subsidence: Karst and Cavernous Rocks in Engineering and Construction: Berlin Heidelberg, Springer Praxis Books, 382 p.

Warren, J. K., 2016, Evaporites: A compendium (ISBN 978-3-319-13511-3): Berlin, Springer, 1854 p.

Wigley, T. M. L., J. J. Drake, J. F. Quinlan, and D. C. Ford, 1973, Geomorphology and geochemistry of a gypsum karst near Canal Flats, British Columbia: Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 10, p. 113-129.


 

 

Danakhil Potash; Ethiopia - Modern hydrothermal and deep meteoric KCl, Part 3 of 4

John Warren - Friday, May 01, 2015

So far we have discussed the modern salt pan geology of the Danakhil (Part 1 of 4) and the initial subaqueous setting for widespread bedded potash, now in the subsurface, mostly as a kainitite bed (Part 2 of 4). In this blog we will discuss examples of potash in the Danakhil where remobilised salts and brines are related to the circulation of hydrothermal and meteoric fluids have facilitated localised reworking of potash to the surface (part 3 of 4). These fluids are related to the thermal anomalies created by the emplacement of the Dallol mound and the chemical front created by the encroachment of the Bajada along the western margin of the saltflat. Notably, we shall see the Dallol Mound is not a volcanic cone, rather it is an anticlinal dome of uplifted and eroded bedded salt, capped and surrounded by hydrothermal crater features typified by karst pools and brine outflows. Its creation is likely related to emplacement of igneous material at depth but, as yet there, has been no breakout of volcanic rock material in the mound area. This has important economic implications for the nature of remobilised potash and the creation of potential potash ores in the Dallol Mound area, these cosiderations are separate from the regional distribution of primary potash beds (kainitite and carnallitite) that were discussed in the previous blog.


Thermal brine springs and potash occurrences near Dallol mound

Today, hot springs supply and maintain a number of hydrothermally-fed brine pools and brine filled karst lakes in various depressions both atop and near the regional anticlinal salt mound or salt dome, sometimes called Dallol Mountain (Figure 1). As it only rises some 60 metres from the surrounding surface (-81 m versus -120 m) the term mountain is a misnomer. The highly dissected and eroded slope of bedded halite that is the southwest margin of Dallol mound shows the various springs are active in a region of uplifted and eroded bedded evaporite that defines the Dallol mound (Figure 2a). For example, brine springs still supply a small carnallite deposit known as the Crescent deposit located near the uplifted black halite beds that define Black Mountain and located 1.5 km southwest of Dallol mound (Figure 2b). This potash ore is the result of hydrothermally-driven groundwater activity, likely related to the emplacement of the Dallol Mound. The uplift-related thermal hydrology has broken up the mineralogical continuity of the nearsurface evaporite beds including the equivalents to the potash-rich Houston Fm.


The Black Mountain potash deposits caught the attention of the Houston-based  Ralph M. Parsons company in 1954 where, according to Holwerda and Hutchinson, 1968, potash mining had previously already taken place at the Crescent carnallite/sylvite deposit. Earlier extraction had involved, amongst other techniques, flooding of salt pans around a continuously flowing hot spring, followed by harvesting of potash-rich salts, once natural deliquescence had flushed most of the highly soluble MgCl2 from the system. A concession was obtained Parsons linked to obligations to investigate the various potash deposits in the area, some of which were tied to actual outcrops of potash salts. The Parsons Company set up its base on Dallol Mountain at a site previously occupied by the Italian mining community, which had operated in the first few decades of last century (Figure 2a; the modification and reuse of older salt brick buildings is still evident on the ground today). As well, Parsons Co. constructed airstrips on Dallol Mountain and in the Musley area. They drilled more than 300 holes in order to better understand the the distribution of the potash beds. Drilling operations in 1959-1961 led to the delineation of the small localized "Crescent" carnallitite deposit in the vicinity of Black Mountain . This was followed by the discovery of the much larger (>80 million tonnes) "Musley" sylvite deposit near the base of the Ethiopian Highlands, some 5km W of Dallol, and extending at least 10km in a N-S orientation. A 92m vertical shaft and a total of 805m of drives were made in this deposit, but all work was stopped in 1967 after rapid influx of water into the conventional mine killed a number of workers. The political tensions in the area at the time probably also played a part in preventing mining activity in the following years.

Holwerda and Hutchinson (1968) argue that geographical location of the main "Musley" sylvite strata is directly west of Dallol Mound and at the base of the highlands. This, and the fact that sylvite is an alternation product that consistently overlays the carnallite strata and thickens (although discontinuously) along the western margin (see drill hole intersections published in Ercosplan, 2011), suggests that the potash enrichment was produced by selective leaching of MgCl2 from a carnallite precursor, driven by phreatic run-off waters sourced in the Ethiopian highlands. My own observations and plotting of enrichment fairways (using published Ercosplan 2010, 2011 data) confirms Holwerda and Hutchinson’s inferences. If diagenesis, not primary precipitation, is the prime mechanism of sylvite creation in the Musley region, then the regional sylvite control/distribution for this style of enrichment is related to a subsurface meteoric/groundwater phreatic overprint that parallels the encroaching bajada edge. It is a separate ore fairway to the more regional easterly dipping bedded kainitite/carnallitite trend.

Waters in some of the active brine-filled hydrothermal craters and dolines can locally have temperatures of more than 100°C and when waters cool they precipitate varying combinations of halite, carnallite and bischofite. The brines are so saturated with salts that if a stick is thrust into a boiling brine pool and removed it is immediately covered by layer of carnallite or bischofite and halite (Figure 2b, c). The same pools are also rich in FeCl2, sulphur and manganese, which explains the spectacular bright green, red-orange and yellow colours of many of the saline mineral assemblages precipitating in and about these active spring-formed pools. Occasional intense storm-driven sheetfloods can drive renewed activity in the various springs in vicinity of the mound, as happened in the recent floods of February 2011, when the intensity of water circulation and the areal extent of the pools greatly increased. After the same storm flood, a natural collapse doline tens of metres across formed on the western depression margin. Clearly, the local hydrothermal/karstic enhancement style of bittern enrichment is a separate process set for potash enrichment compared to the widespread earlier deposition of marine-fed subaqueous kainite. Hence, it contrasts with the much more widespread set of depositional/early diagenetic processes that laid down the bulk of the bedded potash association that is the Houston Fm. in the Danakhil Depression (as discussed in the previous Danakhil blog).

What is the Dallol Mound and what drives its uplift hydrology?

Despite the widespread misconception that the Dallol mound is a lava cone, Mount Dallol is not a volcanic-centered feature on the Danakhil landscape. A visit to the area reveals no observable volcanic products (lava, ashfall or scoria) on the surface on or near the Dallol mound. This is so even in the region of the most recent phreatic activity in 1926 where a 30 m-diameter phreatic (explosion? or daylighting hydrothermal karst) crater formed, hosted in salt beds (Figure 2b). All the rocks associated with this cavity and its formative event are not volcanic. This means the mechanism that created the Dallol Mound is unlike the magmatic events that created the world famous Erte Ale volcanic cone, with its distinctive longterm active magma lake and located some 80 km to the south of Dallol and still in the Danakhil depression. Instead, the Dallol mound crest is made up of uplifted and eroded halite and potash beds soaked in a thermal hydrology that breaks out on the lake surface as a number of hot bubbling sulphurous brine pools. This is also true of the off-mound crater that formed in 1926 near Black Mountain and still retains bubbling brines with present temperatures ~65-70 °C. Nearby “Black Mountain” is a small area of dark coloured bedded and recrystallised halite, it is not a primary volcanic feature.

As a sedimentologist visiting the area, I wondered at why the Dallol mound features had ever been called volcanic cones, hornitos, or maars (as they are widely described in the literature). To use such genetic terms in a geologically correct fashion I would like to put my hand on a piece of volcanic debris (lava, pumice, scoria or ash) in any of the craters before I call the Dallol mound a volcanic cone. And yet, many workers in the published literature dealing with the Dallol area are happy to do this. I am not saying there is no influence of magmatic heating in forming Dallol Mound, only that molten volcanic rock has yet to surface in the immediate Dallol region. Hence it is unlike the many actual volcanic cones, maars and hornitos to the south and north and this is an significant observation as it deals with mechanism of local potash enrichment. I will argue in the next section that this is because Dallol Mound is a salt uplift feature or dome capped by phreatic cone/ hydrothermal karst structures and all related to the migration of molten magma into more deeply buried salt beds, which contain hydrated salts at the level of the Houston Fm and perhaps even deeper buried hydrated salt layers (see blog 2).

Darrah et al (2013) and Detay (2011) argue that the 30m diameter 1926 crater and other nearby pools on the Dallol saltflat in the vicinity of the Dallol mound are the result of a phreatic explosions, tied to the increasing gas pressure in superficial hydrothermal reservoirs atop a deeper mass of molten rock. The mound is a landscape feature indicative of deep dyke/sill intrusion that did not surface. According to Holwerda and Hutchinson (1968) this yet-to-daylight dyke complex explains the linear orientation of the mound, its pools and other karst/erosion features on the salt flat surface in vicinity of the Dallol mound. That is, the various Dallol hot springs typically consist of 30-40m diameter circular to sub-circular ponds, initially formed by explosive vapor eruptions, to form at-surface circular features, which are widely termed maars, although I would prefer to call them "maar-like." A “maar” is defined in the AGI Glossary of Geology as “a low relief, broad volcanic crater formed by multiple shallow explosive eruptions. It is surrounded by a crater ring, and may be filled by water. Type occurrence is in the Eifel area of Germany.” Given the lack of a volcanic crater rim the Dallol Mound and adjacent brine-filled cavities are not really maars, nor are they hornitos. They will likely evolve into such features, but in their current state better considered brine-filled fumaroles or solfateras or even better, hydrothermal karst cavities that have daylighted. Once the cavities have broken out onto the salt flat surface, these circular (possibly-explosive) features can continue enlarge due to ongoing rise of undersaturated waters and so evolve into expanding hydrothermal karst pools or they can be partially to completely filled with saline precipitates (with no volcanic products derived from molten igneous rock materials).


So, instead of at-surface volcanic products such as lava and ashfall, most of the superficial precipitates/sediments observed in and around the various on- and off-structure Dallol brine pools are evaporite salts, along with some remnants of older clay-sediments. Brine fluids in various hot spring pools in the Dallol area (in the Dallol “hill” crest and the “Crescent” region near Black mountain, and in the “Boiling Lake” region south of the mound) are typically multi-coloured warm/hot ponds (Figure1, 3; Gebresilassie et al., 2011). The various pools are extremely salty (>500g/L), can be highly acidic (sometimes with a pH approaching 0.5), and gas-rich (as evidenced by steady, vigorous bubbling of gases). According to Darrah et al. (2013) the Dallol “salt dome” fluids and associated hot springs are hypothesized to result from the interaction between hot mantle fluids or basalt dyke injections with evaporite deposits at unknown depths. However, direct observations of the volumes of pool waters and the vigour of the outflow are known to increase after the occasional heavy rain event, as happened in February, 2011. Hence, it is unclear if sulfur-rich gases and the low pH brine fluids provide evidence of the interaction of hot mantle fluids with the evaporites (as inferred by Darrah et al., 2013) or the pool waters are, at least in part, related shallower ongoing hydrothermal/karst interactions with more deeply circulated meteoric waters sourced in the 1000-m high adjacent rift highlands.

Why hydrated salts are important in some salt-hosted thermal systems: a Permian Zechstein analog

Most published volcanogenic-related studies of the Dallol Mound have not considered the effects of hydrated salt layers in a situation of rising molten rock, where the country rock contains beds of hydrated evaporites such as kainite or carnallite. This situation is exposed in the dyke-intruded halite-carnallite levels in the mines of the Werra-Fulda mine district of Germany (Schoefield et al., 2013; Warren, 2015). There, the Permian Zechstein salt series contains two important potash salt horizons (2-10m thick), which are mined at a depths ≈ 800 m from within a 400m thick halite host (Figure 4a). In the later Tertiary, basaltic melts intruded these Zechstein evaporites, but only a few dykes reached the Miocene landsurface. Basaltic melt production was related to regional volcanic activity some 10 to 25 Ma. Basalts exposed in the mine walls are typically subvertical dykes, rather than sills. These basaltic intervals can crosscut the salt over zones up to several kilometres wide (Figure 4b). However, correlations of individual dyke swarms, between different mines, or between surface and subsurface outcrops, is difficult.


The basalts are phonolitic tephrites, limburgites, basanites and olivine nephelinites. Dyke margins in contact with halite are usually vitrified, forming a microlitic limburgite glass along dyke edges (Knipping, 1989). At the contact on the evaporite side of the glassy rim there is a cm-wide carapace of high temperature salts (mostly anhydrite and ferroan carbonates). Further out, the effect of the high temperature envelope is denoted by transitions to clear halite, with higher temperature fluid inclusions (Knipping 1989). All of this centimetre to metre-scale alteration is an anhydrous alteration halo, the salt did not melt (halite’s melting temperature is 804°C), rather than migrating, the fluid driving recrystallisation was largely from local movement of entrained brine inclusions. The dolerite/basalt interior of the basaltic dyke is likewise altered and salt soaked, with clear, largely inclusion-free halite typically filling vesicles in the basalt.

Worldwide, dykes intersecting salt beds tend to widen to become sills in two zones: 1) along evaporite units within the halite mass that contain hydrated salts, such as carnallite or gypsum and, 2) where rising magma has ponded and so created laccoliths at the upper or lower halite contact with the adjacent nonsalt strata or against a salt wall (Warren, 2015). The first is a response to a pulse of released water as dyke-driven heating forces the dehydration of hydrated salt layers. The second is a response to the mechanical strength contrast at the salt-nonsalt contact. The first is what is observed in the Fulda region and is also likely relevant to the formation of the Dallol Mound and its remobilised potash-precipitating brines.

 

In such subsurface regions, the heating of hydrated salt layers (such as carnallite or kainite), adjacent to a dyke or sill, drives off the water of crystallisation (chemical or hydration thixotropy) at a much lower temperatures than that at which anhydrous salts, such as halite or anhydrite, thermally melt (Table 1). In the Fulda region the thermally-driven release of water of crystallisation within particular Zechstein salt beds creates thixotropic or subsurface “peperite” textures in carnallitite ore layers, where heated water of crystallisation escaped from the hydrated-salt lattice. Dehydration-driven loss of mechanical strength focuses zones of magma entry into particular horizons in the salt mass, wherever hydrated salt layers were intersected (Figure 4c verses 4d). In contrast, dyke and sill margins are much sharper and narrower in zones of contact with anhydrous salt intervals (Figure 4b; Schofield et al., 2014).

Accordingly, away from immediate vicinity of the direct thermal aureole, heated and overpressured dehydration waters can enter a former Zechstein carnallite halite bed, and drive the creation of extensive soft sediment deformation and [1]peperite textures in the former hydrated layer (Figure 4d, e). Mineralogically, sylvite and coarse recrystallised halite dominate the salt fraction in the peperite intervals/beds. These are evaporite-related beds formed within a hydrated salt bed and so differ from the common notion of volcanic peperites indicating water-saturated sediment intercations with very shallow dyke or sill emplacements. Sylvite in these altered zone is a form of dehydrated carnallite, not a primary-textured salt. In the Fulda region, such altered zones and deformed units can extend along former carnallite layers to tens or even a hundred or more metres from the dyke feeder. Ultimately, the deformed potash bed passes laterally out into the unaltered bed, which retains abundant inclusion-rich primary chevron halite and carnallite (Figure 4d versus 4e). That is, nearer the basalt dyke, the carnallite is largely transformed into inclusion-poor halite and sylvite, the result of incongruent flushing of warm saline fluids mobilized from the hydrated carnallite crystal lattice as it was heated by dyke emplacement. During Miocene salt alteration/thermal metamorphism in the Fulda region, NaCl-fluids were mixed with fluids originating from thermally-mobilised crystallisation water in the carnallite, as it converted to sylvite.

In the Dallol depression I think it is highly likely that a similar set of destabilisation processes occurred when rising dyke magma reached the levels of hydrated salts (kainite and carnallite beds) in the Houston Formation of the Danakhil fill, after passing relatively passively through the Lower Rocksalt Formation (see the previous blog). Emplacement of the magma/dyke into  hydrated evaporites in the vicinity of what is now the Dallol mound would have mobilised and deformed the hydrated salt level, converting carnallite to sylvite, kainite to bischofite and lesser kieserite, as well as creating widespread cavities filled with pressured volatiles carried by MgCl and KCl brines. Once these hydrothermal cavities dissolve their way to surface, the feeder brines can cool and precipitate as prograde salts such as halite, sylvite and perhaps bischofite. Such destabilisation would have accommodated the emplacement of a basaltic sill at the level of the potash salts, in turn driving the uplift of the lake beds above this region. Mound-related uplift and hydrothermal activity then drives the formation of natural regions of ground collapse, sulphurous and acidic springs and fumaroles, along with the creation of water-filled chimneys and doline sags, filling with various hydrothermal salts, in the vicinity of the volcanic mound.

Implications for Potash distribution in the Danakhil Depression

The discussion of potash mineral-forming processes in this and the previous blog clearly underlines a trichotomy in the way potash has accumulated in halite host-beds across the Danakhil Depression. The most widespread form of potash in the Danakhil Depression is as a primary evaporite bed, composed of primary marine kainitite precipitates with a carnallite cap (Houston Formation). Across the western side of the depression this easterly dipping bed is now buried beneath 30-150 m of overburden salts. It likely precipitated as a marine seepage-fed bittern layer, at a time the Danakhil depression was hydrographically isolated from a direct surface connection with the Red Sea. Its brine hydrology was dominantly subaqueous and not unlike that of modern Lake Asal in Djibouti, although it was more saline than Asal in the subaqueous potash sump areas. Thus, the Danakhil potash bed (Houston Fm) formed sometime ago, its formative hydology is no longer present in the depression and it may be as old as Pliocene or more likely early to mid Pleistocene. There has been sufficient time for this bed to tilt toward the east. The unit is underlain by the subaqueous Lower Rocksalt Formation (LRF) and subsequently overlain by the Upper Rocksalt Formation (URF). Both these halite formations do not entrain primary potash beds. The LRF contains numerous CaSO4 layers, while the URF contains clayey laminite beds and locally hosts regions of remobilised potash salts. The URF evolves upward into the saltflat/ephemeral lake hyperarid hydrology that typifies the modern depression.

More localised forms of potential potash ore typify occurrences in the Dallol and Musley areas (Figure 2a). There potash in the Dallol Mound region is hydrothermally reworked from the uplifted equivalents of the Houston Formation. Even today this hydrology is precipitating carnallitite (associated with bischofite and minor kieserite) in various hydrothermal brine pools atop and around the Dallol Mound, such as the carnallite-dominant Crescent deposit (Figure 2b). These hydrothermal salts owes their origins to daylighting of pressurised fluid systems and cavities. They were created by the volatile products of hydrated salt layers (Houston Fm) where these salts had come into contact with thermal aureoles or actual lithologies of newly emplaced dykes that had penetrated the underlying halite section. Actual molten volcanic rock has yet to make it to the surface in the Dallol Mound region, although active volcanic mounds and flows do typify the saltflat surface tens of kilometres to the south (Erte Alle ) and north. Based on the analogy exposed within the Zechstein-hosted potash mines of the Fulda region of Germany, it is likely that as well as creating at-surface brine pools, this hydrothermal dyke-related hydrology converts any carnallitite to a sylvinite bed at the level of contact with the Houston Fm. 

Then there is the deep-meteoric alteration system that is altering the kainitite/carnallitite of Houston Fm into sylvinite, it is active along the deep meteoric alteration front located at the irregular interface between the downdip end of the Musley Fan and the updip portion of the Houston Fm. This diagenetic mechanism formed the Musley potash deposit, defined and exploited by the Parsons Company operations and documented in Holwerda and Hutchison (1968). Variations on this deep-meteoric alteration theme likely extend south and north of the Musley fan, wherever the active phreatic hydrology of the bajada located at the foot of the Ethiopian Highlands interacts and interfingers with the updip edge of the easterly dipping Houston Formation.

Once again there is no "one-size-fits-all) model for economic potash understanding (Warren, 2010, 2015). Even in what is probably the youngest known marine-fed potash system in the world, the original potash mineralogy and distribution has been altered and locally upgraded via diagenetic interactions with hydrothermal or deep-meteoric fluids. Predicting ore distributions in this, and all potash systems worldwide, requires an understanding of formative process evolution through deep time, and not just the simple application of a layer-cake primary stratigraphic model. 

References

Carniel, R., E. M. Jolis, and J. Jones, 2010, A geophysical multi-parametric analysis of hydrothermal activity at Dallol, Ethiopia: Journal of African Earth Sciences, v. 58, p. 812-819.

Darrah, T. H., D. Tedesco, F. Tassi, O. Vaselli, E. Cuoco, and R. J. Poreda, 2013, Gas chemistry of the Dallol region of the Danakil Depression in the Afar region of the northern-most East African Rift: Chemical Geology, v. 339, p. 16-29.

Detay, M., 2011, Le DALLOL revisité: entre explosion phréatomagmatique, rifting intra-continental, manifestations hydrothermales et halocinèse: LAVE. Liaison des amateurs de volcanologie européenne, v. 151, p. 7-19.

ERCOSPLAN, 2010, Techical report and current resource estimate: Danakhil Potash Deposit, Afar State, Ethiopia: Project Reference: EGB 08-024.

ERCOSPLAN, 2011, Preliminary Resource Assessment Study, Danakhil Potash Deposit, Afar State, Ethiopia: G & B Property: Project Reference: EGB 10-030.

Gebresilassie, S., H. Tsegab, and K. Kabeto, 2011, Preliminary study on geology, mineral potential, and characteristics of hot springs from Dallol area, Afar rift, northeastern Ethiopia: implications for natural resource exploration: Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science, v. 3, p. 17-30.

Holwerda, J. G., and R. W. Hutchinson, 1968, Potash-bearing evaporites in the Danakil area, Ethiopia: Economic Geology, v. 63, p. 124-150.

Knipping, B., 1989, Basalt intrusions in evaporites: Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences (Springer-Verlag), v. 24, p. 132 pp.

Schofield, N., I. Alsop, J. Warren, J. R. Underhill, R. Lehné, W. Beer, and V. Lukas, 2014, Mobilizing salt: Magma-salt interactions: Geology.

Warren, J. K., 2010, Evaporites through time: Tectonic, climatic and eustatic controls in marine and nonmarine deposits: Earth-Science Reviews, v. 98, p. 217-268.

Warren, J. K., 2015, Evaporites: A compendium (ISBN 978-3-319-13511-3) Released August 2015: Berlin, Springer, 1600 p.

------------------------- 

[1] Peperite is a sedimentary rock that contains fragments of igneous material and is formed when magma comes into contact with wet water-saturated sediments. 

Danakhil Potash, Ethiopia: Beds of Kainite/Carnallite, Part 2 of 4

John Warren - Wednesday, April 29, 2015

The modern Dallol saltflat described in the previous blog defines the upper part of more than 970 metres of halite-dominated Quaternary evaporites that have accumulated beneath the present salt pan of the Northern Danakhil. The total sequence is made up of interbeds of halite, gypsum, anhydrite and shale with a potash succession separating two thick sequences of halite (Figure 1; Holwerda and Hutchison, 1968; Augustithis, 1980). At depths of more than 35-40 meters, and deepening to the east, this km-thick subcropping Quaternary halite-dominated fill contains one, and perhaps two or more, potash beds. For a more detailed description of the upper part of the fill the reader is referred to the previous blog and Chapter 11 in Warren, 2015.


Bedded Pleistocene evaporites may underlie the entire Danakil depression, but younger lava flows of the Aden Volcanic Series and alluvium washed in from the surrounding bajada obscure much of the older Pleistocene sedimentary series across much of the southern part of the depression beyond Lake Assale). Potash exploration drilling and core recovery is concentrated in the accessible parts of the northern Danakhil rift, where the saltflat facilitates vehicle access, compared with the lava-covered regions south of Lake Assale. The most recent volcanic activity affecting the known potash region was the emplacement of the Dallol Mound, which has driven local uplift of the otherwise subsurface potash section to where it approaches the surface in the immediate vicinity of the mound (Figure 2a).

Away from the Dallol volcanic mound the upper potash bed beneath the saltflat lies at a depth of 38-190 metres. A lower inferred potash bed likely occurs at depth along the eastern end of the saltflat, but this second bed is inferred from high API kicks in gamma logs run in deeper wells, no solid salt was recovered (Holwerda and Hutchison, 1968). The upper proven potash bed is now the target zone for a number of minerals companies currently exploring for potash in the region. Regionally, both potash units dip east, with the deepest indicators of the two units encountered by the drill in a single well on the eastern side of the saltflat at depths of 683 and 930 m, respectively (Figure 2: Holwerda and Hutchison, 1968). The likely Quaternary age of the potash units, the marine brine source, explains the high magnesium content of the potash bittern salts, as modern seawater contains high levels of Mg and SO4.


My study of core that intersected the potash interval and that is sandwiched between the Lower and Upper Halite units shows both the lower and the upper halite units retain pristine sedimentary textures, with features and vertical successions that indicate distinct hydrologies during their deposition (Figure 3). There is no textural evidence of halokinetic recrystallization in halites any of the studied cores and published seismic also indicates consistent dips in the evaporites . Most of the textures in the cored potash interval indicate a subaqueous density-stratified environment, with brine reworking of the upper part of primary kainitite, carnallitite units. Perennial subaqueous, density-stratified brines also typify the hydrology of the Lower Halite unit, albeit with somewhat lower salinities tan those precipitating the bitterns (Figure 3). The brine that precipitating the Upper Rocksalt Formation was shallower and more ephemeral. The following paragraphs summarise my core-based observations and interpretations that led to this interpretation of the evolving brine hydrology.

The Lower Rocksalt Formation (LRF) is dominated by bottom-growth-aligned subaqueous halite textures and lack of siliciclastic detritus, unlike the Upper Rocksalt Formation (Figure 3). Halite textures in the LRF lack porosity and dominated by coarsely crystalline beds made up of cm-scale NaCl-CaSO4 couplets dominated by upward-pointing halite chevrons and mantled by thin CaSO4 layers (Figure 3). This meromictic-holomictic textural association passes up into the upper part of the LRF with cm-scale proportions alternating of less-saline to more-saline episodes of evaporite precipitation decreasing, indicating an “on-average” increasingly shallow subaqueous depositional setting as one approaches the base of the kainitite unit. The combination of bottom-nucleated and cumulate textures in the LRF are near identical to those in the halites in the kainitite interval in the Messinian of Sicily (see later). 

The laminated Kainitite Member is also a subaqueous unit with layered cumulate textures (Figure 3), it was likely deposited on a pelagic bottom beneath a shallow body of marine-fed bittern waters, which never reached carnallite saturation. Above this are the variably present carnallitic Intermediate and Sylvinitite members and the overlying Halite marker beds in turn overlain by the Upper Halite unit. All retain pristine textures indicating mostly subaqueous deposition, soon followed by varying exposure and reaction with shallow phreatic brines moving across the top of Kainitite member. This shallow phreatic brine crossflow drove syndepositional mineral alteration and collapse in the upper part of the kainitite and carnallitite units.


The potash-entraining interval between the URF and LRF is called the Houston Formation has been drilled and cored extensively by explorers in the basin, showing it is consistently between 15 and 40 metres thick (Figure 1). Stratigraphically, it consists of lower Kainitite Member (4-14m thick) atop and in depositional continuity with the LRF (more than 500m thick) (Figure 3). The Kainitite Member is fine-grained, laminated, locally wavy-bedded, containing up to 50% kainite cumulates in a cumulate (non-chevron) halite background, along with small amounts of a white mineral that is likely epsomite. It is overlain by what older literature describes as the “Carnallitite Intermediate unit” (3-25 m thick). More recent potash exploration drilling has shown all the members that constitute the Intermediate Carnallitite Member is not always present within the Dallol depression. Mineralogically is at best considered as variably developed (Figure 3). Its lower part is a layered to laminated carnallite-halite mixture with some kieserite, anhydrite and epsomite. This can pass up or laterally into kainitite with sylvite. Above the Intermediate Member is the 0-10m thick Sylvinite Member containing 20-30% sylvite, along with polyhalite and anhydrite (up to 10%). Typically the sylvinite member shows primary layering disturbed by varying intensities of slumping and dissolution. Often the upper part of a carnallite unit (where present) also shows similar evidence of dissolution and reprecipitation.

Cores through the sylvinite member and parts of the upper carnallitite member sample a range of recrystallization/flow/slump textures, rather than primary horizontal-laminar textures. Beneath the sylvinite member, the variably-present upper carnallitite member contains a varied suite of non-commercial potash minerals that in addition to carnallite include, kieserite, kainite (up to 10% by volume) and polyhalite, along with minor amounts of sylvite. Minor anhydrite is common, while rinneite may occur locally, along with rust-red iron staining. Sylvite is more abundant near the top of the carnallitite member and its proportion decreases downward, perhaps reflecting its groundwater origin. Kainite is the reverse and its proportion increases downward. The sylvinite member and the carnallitite member also show an inverse thickness relationship. Bedding in the carnallitite member is commonly contorted with folded and brecciated horizons interpreted as slumps. The base of the carnallitite member is defined as the level where carnallite forms isolated patches in the kainite before disappearing entirely.

Drilling in the past few years has clearly show that in some parts of the evaporite unit, located nearer to the western side of the basin, the lower and upper carnallite units are separated by thick bischoftite intervals (Figures 2b, 3). The bischofite is layered at a mm-cm scale and with no obvious breaks related to freshening and exposure, implying it too was deposited in a perennially subaqueous or phreatic cavity setting (Pedley et al., in press).

The potash/bischofite interval passes up into a slumped and disturbed halite-dominated unit that is known as the “Marker Beds” because of the co-associated presence of clay lamina and bedded halite, along with traces of potash minerals (Figure 3). This unit then passes up into the massive Upper Rock Salt unit across an unconformity at the top of the halite “Marker Beds.” Bedded, and at times finely laminated cumulate textures in the various magnesian bittern units, are used by many to argue that the kainitite and the lower carnallitite members are primary or syndepositional precipitates.

Three types of potash-barren zones can occur within it and are possibly related to the effects of groundwaters and solution cavity cements within the carnallitite unit, perhaps precipitated before the deposition of the overlying marker halites. Barren zones in the Sylvinite member are regions where: a) the entire sylvinite bed is replaced by a relatively pure stratiform halite, along with dispersed nodules of anhydrite, b) zones up to 23 m thick and composed of pure crystalline halite (karst-fill cements?) that occur patchily within the sylvinite bed and, c) potash-depleted zones defined by coarsely crystalline halite instead of sylvinite. Bedding plane spacing and layering and some slumping styles in the halite in styles a and b are similar to that in the sylvite bed. Contact with throughflushing freshened nearsurface and at-surface waters perhaps created most of the barren zones in the sylvinite. Fluid crossflow may also have formed or reprecipitated sylvite of the upper member, via selective surface or nearsurface leaching of MgCl2 from its carnallite precursor (Holwerda and Hutchison, 1968; Warren 2015). Due to the secondary origin of much of the sylvite in the Sylvinite member, the proportion of sylvite decreases as the proportion of carnallite increases, along with secondary kieserite, polyhalite and kainite.

The kainite member is texturally distinctive and is composed of nearly pure, fine-grained, dense, relatively hard, amber-coloured kainite with ≈ 25% admixed halite (Figure 3). Core study shows the lamina style remained flat-laminar (that is, subaqueous density-stratified with periodic bottom freshening) as the mineralogy passes from the LRF up into the flat-laminated kainitite member (Figure 4: Warren, 2015; Pedley et al., in press). Throughout, the kainitite unit shows a cm-mm scale layering, with no evidence of microkarsting or any exposure of the kainitite depositional surface. That is, the Kainitite Member is a primary depositional unit, like the underlying halite and still retains pristine evidence of its dominantly subaqueous depositional hydrology. The decreased proportion of anhydrite in the Kainitite Member, compared to the underlying LRF, indicates a system that on-average was more saline than the brines that deposited the underlying halite. The preponderance of MgSO4 salts means the Kainitite unit like the underlying LRF formed by the evaporation of seep-supplied seawater.

This situation differs from the present “closed basin” hydrology of the Danakil Depression which typifies the URF and the overlying Holocene succession (Hardie, 1990; Warren, 2015).

Units atop the primary laminated textures of the kainitite, lower carnallitite and bischofite members (where present) tend to show various early-diagenetic secondary textures (Figure 4). It seems much of the sylvinite and upper carnallitite member deposition was in shallow subsurface or at-surface brine ponds subject to groundwater crossflows and floor collapse, possibly aided by seismically-induced pulses of brine crossflow. In addition, this perennial density-stratified brine hydrology was at times of holomixis subject to brine reflux and the brine-displacement backreactions that typify all evaporite deposition, past and present (Warren 2015).

The observation of early ionic mobility in potash zone brines in the Danakil depositional system is also not unusual in any modern or ancient potash deposit. It should not be considered necessarily detrimental to the possibility of an extensive economically exploitable potash zone being present in the Danakil Depression. Interestingly, all the world’s exploited potash deposits, including those in the Devonian of Canada and Belarus, the Perm of the Urals and the potash bed of west Texas, show evidence of syndepositional and shallow burial reworking of potash (Warren, 2015). Early potassium remobilization has created the ore distributions in these and other mined potash depositsTextures and mineralogies in the Upper Rocksalt Formation (URF) define a separate hydrological association to the marine-fed LRF and Houston Formation (Table 4). Compared to the LRF, the URF has much higher levels of depositional porosity, lacks high levels of CaSO4, and has high levels of detrital siliciclastics. This is especially so in its upper part, which shows textural evidence of periodic and ongoing clastic-rich sheetflooding and freshening (Figure 4). It was deposited in a hydrology that evolved up section to become very similar to that active on today’s halite pan surface. The URF contains no evidence of salinities or textures associated with a potash bittern event and is probably not a viable exploration target for solid potash salts.

Above the URF is a clastic unit with significant amounts of, and sometimes beds dominated by, lenticular gypsum and displacive halite. The unit thickens toward the margins of the depression (Figure 2). The widespread presence of diagenetic salts indicates high pore salinities as, or soon after, the saline beds that stack into the clastic unit were deposited. Some of these early diagenetic evaporite textures are spectacular, as seen in the displacive halite recovered in a core from the lower portion of the clastic overburden, some 45 m below the modern pan surface (Figure 3).

What is clear from the textures preserved in the potash-rich Houston formation and the immediately underlying and overlying halites is that they first formed in a subaqueous-dominated marine-fed hydrology (Figure 4), which evolves up section into more ephemeral saltpan hydrologies of today (see the previous blog). The potash interval encapsulated in the Houston formation has primary mineralogical associations that are derived by evaporation of Pleistocene seawater (kainitite, carnallitite). In contrast the sylvite section in the Houston tends to form when these primary mineralogies are altered diagenetically perhaps soon after deposition but, especially, when hydrothermal waters circulated through uplifted beds of the Houston Formation, as is still occurring in the vicinity of the Dallol Volcanic Mound. Or where the chemical/meteoric interface associated with the encroachment of the bajada sediment pile drove incongruent dissolution of carnallite along the updip edge of the Houston Fm (as we shall discuss in the next blog). 

References

Augustithis, S. S., 1980, On the textures and treatment of the sylvinite ore from the Danakili Depression, Salt Plain (Piano del Sale), Tigre, Ethiopia: Chemie der Erde, v. 39, p. 91-95.

Hardie, L. A., 1990, The roles of rifting and hydrothermal CaCl2 brines in the origin of potash evaporites: an hypothesis: American Journal of Science, v. 290, p. 43-106.

Holwerda, J. G., and R. W. Hutchinson, 1968, Potash-bearing evaporites in the Danakil area, Ethiopia: Economic Geology, v. 63, p. 124-150.

Pedley, H. M., J. Neubert, and J. K. Warren, in press, Potash deposits of Africa: African Mineral Deposits, 35TH International Geological Congress (IGC), Capetown (28 August to 4 September 2016).

Warren, J. K., 2015, Evaporites: A compendium (ISBN 978-3-319-13511-3) Released August 2015: Berlin, Springer, 1600 p. 

Danakhil Potash, Ethiopia: Is the present geology the key? Part 1 of 4

John Warren - Sunday, April 19, 2015

Geology of potash in the Danakil Depression, Ethiopia: Is the present the key?

The Danakhil region, especially in the Dallol region of Ethiopia, is world renowned for significant accumulations of potash salts (both muriates and sulphates), and is often cited as a modern example of where potash accumulates today. What is not so well known are the depositional and hydrological dichotomies that control levels of bittern salts in the Pleistocene stratigraphy that is the Danakhil fill. Geological evolution of the potash occurrences in the Dallol saltflat and surrounds highlights the limited significance of Holocene models for potash, when compared to the broader depositional and hydrological spectra preserved in ancient (Pre-Quaternary) evaporite deposits (see Warren, 2010, 2015 for a more complete analysis across a variety of evaporite salts).

Across the next four blogs, I shall discuss the geological character of the Danakhil fill and the controls on potash in the depression via four time-related discussions; A) Current continental fan - saltflat hydrology that typifies present and immediate past deposition in the depression (Danakhil Blog1). B) A time in the latest Pleistocene when there was a marine hydrographic connection exemplified by a healthy coralgal rim facies (probably ≈ 100,000 years ago, and a subsequent drawndown gypsum rim facies. Both units are discussed in this blog, (Danakhil Blog1), and C) a somewhat older Pleistocene period when widespread potash salts were deposited via a marine seepage fed hydrology (Danakhil Blog2). Then, within this depositional frame, we will consider D) the influence of Holocene volcanism and uplift driving remobilisation of the somewhat older potash-rich evaporite source beds into the Holocene hydrology (Danakhil Blog3) and finally how this relates to models of Neogene marine potash deposition (Danakhil Blog4). These observations and interpretations are based in large part on a two-week visit to the Dallol, sponsored by BHP minerals, and focused on the potash geology of the region. 

Dallol Physiography

The Danakhil Depression of Ethiopia and Eritrea is an area of intense volcanic and hydrothermal activity, with potash occurrences related to rift magmatism, marine flooding, and deep brine cycling. The region is part of the broader Afar Triple Junction and located in the axial zone of the Afar rift, near the confluence of the East African, Red Sea and Carlsberg rifts (Figure 1a; Holwerda and Hutchison, 1968; Hutchinson and Engels, 1970; Hardie, 1990). The depression defines the northern part of the Afar depression and runs SSE parallel to the Red Sea coast, but lies some 50 to 80 km inland, and is separated from the Red Sea by the Danakil Mountains. The fault-defined Danakil Depression is 185 km long, up to 70 km wide, with a floor that in the deeper parts of the depression is more than 116 meters below sea level. It widens to the south, beginning with a 10 km width in the north and widening up to 70 km in the south (Figure 1a). In the vicinity of Lake Assele, the northern portion of the Danakil is known as the Dallol Depression and has been the focus for potash exploration for more than a century and is in the deepest region of the depression with elevations ranging between 50m to 120m below sealevel (Figure 1b, c). Shallow volcano-tectonic barriers, behind Mersa Fatma, Hawakil Bay and south of the Gulf of Zula, prevent hydrographic (surface) recharge to the depression. Marine seepage is not occurring at the present time, but likely did so at the time the main potash unit was precipitated. Lake Assele (aka Lake Kurum) with a water surface at -115m msl should not be confused with Lake Asal (-155 msl), located 350 km to the southeast of the Danakil. Asal an active marine-fed hydrographically isolated lacustrine drawdown system, which today is depositing a combination of pan halite and subaqueous gypsum in the deepest part of the Asal-Ghubbat al Kharab rift (Figure 1a; Warren, 2015).

Today the halite-floored elongate saltpan, known as the Dallol saltflat, occupies the deepest part of the northern Danakil Depression, extending over an area some 40 km long and 10 km wide (Figure 1b, c). The pan’s position is asymmetric within the Danakil Depression; it lies near the depression’s western edge, some 5km from the foot of the escarpment to the Balakia Mountains and the Ethiopian Highlands, but some 50 km from the eastern margin of the depression, which is in Eritrea. The Dallol saltpan and adjacent Lake Assele today constitute the deepest continental drainage sump in the Afar depression (Figure 1b, c). The area, located east and northeast of the main modern Dallol saltpan depression, is mostly an extensive gypsum plain (Bannert et al., 1970). As we shall see, the gypsum pavement, and its narrower equivalents on the western basin flank, defines a somewhat topographically higher (still sub-sealevel) less-saline, lacustrine episode in the Dallol depression history fill. To the south of the Dallol salt pan, bedded Pleistocene evaporites may underlie the entire Danakil depression, but younger lava flows of the Aden Volcanic Series in combination with alluvium washed in from the surrounding bajada obscure much of the older Pleistocene sedimentary series in southern part of the depression beyond Lake Assele (Figures 1a).

Climate

In terms of daily and monthly temperatures, the Dallol region currently holds the official record for highest average, year-round, monthly temperatures; in winter the daily temperature on the saltflat is consistently above 34°C and in summer every day tops 40°C, with some days topping 50°C (Figure 2; Oliver, 2005). These high temperatures and a lack of rainfall, typically less than 200 mm each year, place the Dallol at the hyperarid end of the world desert spectrum and so it lies at the more arid end of the BWh Köppen climate zone (Kottek et al., 2006; Warren, 2015).


History of extraction of salt products and their transport (Table 1)

Using little-changed extraction and transport methods, salt (halite) has been quarried by local Afar tribesmen for hundreds of years. First, using axes, a crust of pan salt is chopped into large slabs (Figure 3a). Then workers fit a set of sticks into grooves made by the axes. Next, working the stick, workers lever slabs of bedded salt, which is cut into rectangular tiles of standard size and weight, called ganfur (about 4kg) or ghelao (about 8kg). Tiles are stacked, tied and prepared for transport out of the depression on the backs of camels and donkeys (Figure 3b). Around 2,000 camels and 1,000 donkeys come to the salt flat every day to transport salt tiles to Berahile, about 75 km away. Previously, salt tiles were carried via camel train to the city of Mekele, some 100 km from the Danakil. Mekele, located in the Ethiopian highlands is known as the hub of Ethiopia’s former “white gold” salt trade and still today is known as the “old” salt caravan city. Today, the salt caravans walk the extracted salt to Berahile, located some 60 km from Mekele. From there, trucks transport the salt to Mekele. Each truck can transport up to 350 camel salt loads. From the Mekele salt market, Dallol salt blocks are transported and sold to all parts of Ethiopia for use mainly as table salt or as an add-on in animal feed. The lifestyle of the miners and the camel trains is likely to change in the next few decades as sealed roads are now under construction that will link Mekele to Dallol.


Once potash (sylvite and carnallite) was discovered in the Dallol region in 1906, an Italian company by the name of Compagnia Mineraria Coloniale (CMC) established the first mining operation. In 1918 a railway was completed from the port of Mersa Fatma to a termination some 28 km from Dallol (Table 1). Rail construction took place from 1917-1918, using what was then the British and French “military-standard” 600 mm rail-gauge Decauville system. "Decauville" rail construction used ready-made sections of small-gauge track and so the trackway was rapidly assembled; <2 years to complete more than 50 km of track. Once completed, the railway transported extracted potash salt from the "Iron Point" rail terminal near Dallol, via Kululli to the port. Potash production is said to have reached some 50,000 metric tons in the 1920s, extracted from an area centred on the Crescent Deposit, which is located near the foot of uplifted lake beds on the southern flanks of Mt Dallol. However, significant salt production had ceased by the end of the 1920s, as large-scale mines in Germany, the USA, and the USSR began to supply the world market with cheaper product. Unsuccessful attempts to reopen potash production were made in the period 1920-1941. Between 1925-29 some 25,000 tons of sylvite were shipped by rail from the Dallol, with a product that averaged 70% KCl. After World War II, the British administration dismantled the railway and removed all traces of it. In 1951-1953, the Dallol Co. of Asmara sold a few tons of product from the Dallol.


The potash concession title was transferred to the American “Ralph M. Parsons Company” (Parsons) at the end of the 1950s. Parsons initiated the first systematic exploration for potash in the Danakil depression and drilled more than 250 exploration holes during their 9-year evaluation campaign. Major potash resources were confirmed a few km west of Mount Dallol, in a mineralized zone that was named the “Musley” Deposit. Following on from positive exploration results, they began an engineering study to investigate potential processing and mining methods for the Musley Deposit and subsequently in October 1965 sank a shaft into the orebody. They installed underground mine facilities and established a pilot processing plant on surface, to investigate recovery from the bulk samples collected from the underground workings. They envisaged developing the Musley Deposit as a conventional room-and-pillar operation and to this end developed six underground drifts totalling some 805 m in length. Unconfirmed reports suggest that an influx of water flooded the mine (possibly triggered by a seismic event) and after failed attempts to solve the water problem, the activities Parsons ceased activities in 1968. As of end 2014, some salt block buildings built by the Italian and other companies still partially stand as ruins, along with rusting equipment.

Based on the previous work conducted by Parsons, a German potash producer, Salzdetfurth AG (SAG), began a new exploration campaign in the Danakil Depression in 1968 and 1969. In addition to their work in the Dallol depression, SAG drilled a number of wells in a concession south of Lake Assale, and conducted a geological mapping campaign as far north as Lake Badda, on the border with Eritrea. SAG’s exploration work away from the known Dallol deposits did not prove fruitful as they drilled only one drill hole that reached the potash level. This drill hole, located approximately 25 km to the southeast of Mount Dallol, intersected a kainitite bed, with no sylvinite intersection. The SAG concession was returned to state authorities of Ethiopia. Subsequent drilling by other explorationists in this region has confirmed the deepening of the kainitite level to the southeast of Dallol and the lack of sylvinite at greater depths.

Since the dismantling of the railway, there has been no high-volume transport system to carry potash product the Red Sea coast. Currently, the Ethiopian Government is constructing all-weather roads from Dallol to Mekele and Afdera When complete this road system will facilitate transport of future potential potash product from the Dallol to Afdera, from where existing roads provide access to Serdo and from there to the seaport of Tadjoura in Djibouti (Figure 1a). This section requires an addition 30 km of all-weather road to be completed to the coast and will facilitate cost-effective transport of potash product to the large agricultural markets of India and China. The transport distance to the Eritrean coast from Dallol is much shorter, but political considerations mean such a route is not a viable option at the present time.

EVAPORITE DEPOSITIONAL PATTERNS IN OUTCROP

Surficial sediment distributions outline classic drawdown facies belts in the Dallol region, with a wadi-fed alluvial fan fringe passing down dip into sandflats (local dune fields), dry mudflats (with springs), saline mudflats and ephemeral to perennial brine pans of Lake Assele (Figure 1b). The fans, especially along the western margin of the depression are indented or locally covered by a mostly younger succession of constant-elevation marine, biochemical and evaporitic sediments fringes or “bathtub rim” facies (Figure 4).

 

Alluvial Fan fringe (Bajada) 

Pleistocene alluvial/fluvial beds, exposed by local uplift, deflation and ongoing watertable lowering, outcrop about updip edges to the salt-crusted parts of the northern Danakil, and form low flat-topped plateaus or mesas on the plain. These mesas define the tops of alluvial fans aprons, which are heavily dissected and eroded by occasional storm runoff and rainfall. This fan fringe contains relatively fresh water lenses in a desert setting that is one of the world’s harshest (Kebede, 2012). Most of the depositionally active fans line the western margin of the basin and many of the downdip fan edges occur slightly up dip a still-exposed gypsum pavement (Figure 5a), showing depositional equilibration largely with an earlier higher lake stage, while others, such as the Musley fan, have flowed across cut into the gypsum pavement level and now feed water and sediment directly into the edges of the saltflat that defines the lower parts of the depression (Figure 4). Watercourses of the fans that have dissected earlier wadi (bajada) deposits as well as the earlier lacustrine gypsum and limestone pavements so create excellent windows into the stratigraphy of these units. Fan avulsion is indicated by palaeosol layers exposed by downcutting of younger streams (Figure 5b, c).

 

The Musley fan characteristics are well documented by current and previous potash explorers in the basin as these permeable gravels and sands store a reliable water source for potential solution mining/ore processing in the Musley area and so has been cored by a number of proposed water wells. Internally, the fan is composed of interfingering layers and lenses of sand, gravel and clay (paleosols), with highly porous intervals in the sand and gravels (Figure 5b, c). Depth to the watertable varies from >2m to 60m, and salinities from 760 ppm to more than 23,400 ppm. The principal source of recharge is flash flooding, originating in Musley Canyon, which drains the Western Escarpment, along with minor inflows from the adjacent uplifted volcanic block and local highly intermittent rains (Figure 1a). Of six potential water wells drilled in the fan by the Ralph M. Parsons Company in the 1960s, four returned water of good quality (<2000 mg/l), while the other two had waters with salinities in excess of 20 g/l. Pumping test data indicate average transmissivity of the water-bearing beds around 870m2/day, with salinities in the fan increasing from west to east, approaching the saltflat.

Chemical sediments outcropping in the depression

Overall, surface sediment patterns in the Danakil depression define a depositional framework of brine drawdown, related to basin isolation from an earlier hydrographic (at surface) marine connection to the Red Sea, followed by stepped evaporative drawdown. This is indicated by fringing topographically-distinct belts or rims of now inactive coralgal carbonates and gypsum evaporites (aka “bathtub ring” patterns) that cover earlier Pleistocene and Neogene clastics (Figures 3a, e, Figure 4). These “rims” of marine limestone and subsequent gypsum were followed by today’s drawdown saline-pan halite-dominant hydrology (Figures 4, 7a-c). The current hydrological package of sediments encompassing the current drawdown episode lies atop and postdates the Pleistocene potash-hosting Lower Halite Formation in the depression and is probably equivalent to the uppermost part of the clastic overburden facies, as illustrated in the drilled and cored portions of the depression stratigraphy. As we shall discuss in the next blog, only the uppermost portion of the recovered core stratigraphy has equivalents in current depression hydrology (Figure 6). 


In earlier work, some authors interpreted the fringing belts, especially the exposed coralgal reef belt, as being possibly of Pliocene or even Miocene age. However, when one looks at the stratiform nature of the outcrop trace of both the reef belt and the gypsum belt, and the carapace nature of its depositional boundaries in the field, it is immediately apparent they must be younger (Figure 5a, c; Figure 7). Both the reefal and gypsum belts track horizontal hydrological intersections with the landscape, in what is an ongoing volcanogenic and tectonically active depression. When the reefal belt image is overlain by a DEM it shows the reef belt is consistently at sea level (Figure 1c). If the outcrops of the reef belt and the gypsum pavement were older than late Pleistocene or Holocene, then ongoing episodes of tectonism and volcanism would have modified the elevations of the two outcrop belts in the landscape, as is seen in Miocene redbed outcrops. These underlying and centripetal Miocene sections clearly show the influence of ongoing tilting and tectonism and hence why the flat-lying tops to the reef and gypsum belts imply a late Pleistocene-Holocene (Figure 5d).

That is, the topographic distribution of the top of the reef facies, which lies within a metre or two of current sea level, implies that the Danakil depression had a relatively recent connection to the Red Sea. The pristine preservation of aragonitic corals and sand dollars in the adjacent marls suggest the connection was either related to the penultimate interglacial (around 104, 000 years ago) or to an early Holocene transgression into the depression. Bannert et al. (1970) assign a C14 age of 25.4-34.5 ka to this formation. However, we consider this is unlikely as DEM overlay levelling shows the reef rim, wherever it outcrops, lies within a meter of current sealevel. World eustacy clearly shows that sealevel was more than 50-60m below its present level some 25,000-30,000 years ago. A 25-35 ka determination of the reef rim would require the whole basin was subject to a single basinwide wide vertical uplift event that did not fragment or disturb the lateral elevation of the rim.

The coralgal reef terrace indicates normal marine water were once present in the Dallol depression, while the occurrences of the stratiform gypsum pavement are consistent with a former arid lake hydrology at a somewhat lower elevation than the reef rim (Figures 1c, 5a). Like the reef rim, the gypsum pavement fringe defines a consistent elevation level or surface, most clearly visible along the western margin of the present salt flat. It is the result of gypsum deposition during a period of drawdown associated with brine level stability, subsequent to the isolation of the depression from its former “at-surface” marine connection. During this time gypsum accumulated as a stack of subaqueous aligned gypsum beds, along with a series of gypsiferous tufas and rhizoconcretions in zones about the more marginward spring-fed parts of the gypsiferous lake margin (Figure 7d-f). The evolution from marine waters that deposited the reefs and adjacent echinoid-rich lagoonal marls at a higher level in the depression (the lit zone) into a more saline seepage-fed system, with no ongoing marine surface connection to the Red Sea is indicated by the diagenetic growth of large lenticular (“bird’s-beak”) gypsum crystals within the marine marls and the dominant subqueous bottom-nucleated textures in the gypsum beds. In a similar way, the now-outcropping subaqueous-gypsum drawdown rim deposits, located at higher elevations than current saline pan levels typify other drawdown saline lakes in the Afar region, such as Lake Asal in Djibouti, all such occurrences indicate an earlier, somewhat less saline, hydrological equilibrium level (Warren, 2015).


Active today is the lowest parts of the Dallol saltflat is an ephemeral saltpan hydrology indicated by bedded salt crusts dominated by megapolygonal crusts made up of aligned-chevron halite stacks separated by mm-cm thick mud layers . This current pan hydrology is associated with even greater drawdown levels compared to the former gypsum-dominant hydrology (Figure 8). Current deposits, made up a series of stacked brine-pan salt sheets,  are still quarried as a renewable resource by the local tribesmen (Figure 3). These modern brine flats accumulate pan halite whenever the Lake Assele brine edge (strandline) is periodically blown back and forth over the modern brineflat. It driven by southerly winds, which are frequent in the annual weather cycle, and can move thin sheets of brine kilometres across the pan in a few hours (Figure 1a, Figure 8). Superimposed on this southerly supply of brine is an occasional land-derived sheetflood event, driven by rare rainstorms and the deposition of silt-mud layers from water sheets sourced from the adjacent wadi belt. This ephemeral brineflat hydrology is stable with respect to the current climate (groundwater inflow ≈ outflow). It means the current brineflat of the northern Danakil low is  accumulating bedded pan salt at an even lower topographic level in the basin than the surrounding gypsum pavement, so implying today’s halite-dominant pan beds form under more arid conditions (less humid, more drawndown) than that of the gypsum pavement.


This stepped (reef to gypsum to halite) late-Pleistocene-early Holocene hydrology, captured in the modern surficial geology of the Dallol Depression, likely postdates a somewhat wetter (humid) climatic period indicated by the widespread deposition of a clastic overburden unit, atop the Upper Halite Formation (UHF; Figure 6). That is, the modern hydrology in present-day Lake Assale, and the adjacent saline mud flats of the Dallol pan, is not the same hydrology as that which precipitated the massive salt of the Upper Halite Formation (UHF). A potash-free halite unit extensively cored beneath the present clastic-dominated saline pan (to be discussed in the next blog). Texturally and hydrologically the depositional system of stacked salt crusts, which dominates the upper part of the UHF in the cored wells, is similar to today's halite-dominated passage from the salt flat into the subaqueous Lake Assale. However, as we shall see, a wetter moister period, dominated by sheetfloods and higher amounts of clastics, separates the two hydrological events in all the cored wells. Today's outcrop geology of alternating saltpan and clastic beds are a different to marine-fed seepage hydrology formed the Lower Halite Formation (LHF), with its potash bittern cap (Houston Formation). 

Most importantly there is no evidence of primary potash deposition in the modern lake/ pan hydrology of the Dallol saltflat. It is clear that the world-famous bedded potash (mostly kainitite) units of the Danakhil accumulated in a bittern hydrology that is not present in today's Dallol depositional hydrology (Blog 2). As we shall see, Holocene potash only occurs in the vicinity of the Dallol Volcanic Mound, where uplift has moved older, formerly buried, potash beds into a more active hydrothermal hydrology (Blog 3).

References

Bannert, D., J. Brinckmann, K. C. Käding, G. Knetsch, M. KÜrsten, and H. Mayrhofer, 1970, Zur Geologie der Danakil-Senke: Geologische Rundschau, v. 59, p. 409-443.

Ercosplan, 2011, Resource Report for the Danakhil Potash Deposit, Afar State Ethiopia, comissioned by Allana Potash. Document EGB 11-008.

Hardie, L. A., 1990, The roles of rifting and hydrothermal CaCl2 brines in the origin of potash evaporites: an hypothesis: American Journal of Science, v. 290, p. 43-106.

Holwerda, J. G., and R. W. Hutchinson, 1968, Potash-bearing evaporites in the Danakil area, Ethiopia: Economic Geology, v. 63, p. 124-150.

Hutchinson, R. W., and G. G. Engels, 1970, Tectonic significance of regional geology and evaporite lithofacies in northeastern Ethiopia: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, v. A 267, p. 313-329.

Kebede, S., 2012, Groundwater in Ethiopia: Features, numbers and opportunities, Springer.

Kottek, M., J. Grieser, C. Beck, B. Rudolf, and F. Rubel, 2006, World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated: Meteorologische Zeitschrift, v. 15, p. 259-263.

Warren, J. K., 2010, Evaporites through time: Tectonic, climatic and eustatic controls in marine and nonmarine deposits: Earth-Science Reviews, v. 98, p. 217-268.

Warren, J. K., 2015, Evaporites: A compendium (ISBN 978-3-319-13511-3) Released August 2015: Berlin, Springer, 1600 p.

Solikamsk sinkhole and potash ore

John Warren - Thursday, February 19, 2015

The Solikamsk-2 mine output currently accounts for a fifth of the Uralkali's potash capacity. The mine is one of Uralkali’s potash mines in the Kama district (western Urals) of Russia. The possible loss of the Solikamsk-2 mine in the near future may put upward pressure on the currently low world price of potash. Even if loss of production from the mine doesn't drive an increase in price, Uralkali as a company will continue to be profitable. All mines in Solikamsk basin benefit from low production costs, related to shallow ore depth. The collapse sinkhole is a classic example of what can happen if any salt or potash mine operates at a depth that is shallow enough to intersect the overlying  zone of active phreatic water crossflow.


In November 2014 the most recent example of an evaporite-related ground collapse or sinkhole, daylighted to the east of the Solikamsk-2 potash production site. It seems likely that halite-undersaturated waters, sourced from above, now flow into an area of the Solikamsk-2 workings that were no longer mined, but were still connected to the active extraction areas of the Solikamsk mine. Worldwide experience shows that flooding is difficult to control once a salt mass is breached. Increasing volumes of inflow waters into the mine workings will likely lead to the ultimate loss of the Solikamsk 2 mine, as it has in what are other now abandoned salt mines and solution brinefields across the world.

Recently the head of the Ural region's Mining Institute, Alexander Baryakh, was quoted as saying (Moscow Times Dec. 11 2014): ....."Based on our analysis and the world's experience in developing potassium mines, the risk of a negative scenario — the complete flooding on the mine — remains high. We are ready for this contingency, but we are doing everything possible to minimize related risks,"  adding that, "fortunately, the accident poses no danger to the residents of [the local town of] Solikamsk....”

When, in mid November, a stoping solution cavity above the abandoned section of the mine workings reached the surface, the resulting sinkhole diameter measured 30m by 40m. As of 6 February 2015, the at-surface sinkhole diameter had increased in size and measured 58 by 87 metres wide and was some 75 metres deep. Uralkali’s ongoing measurements show levels of brine inflow into the Solikamsk-2 mine continuously varied over this time frame. Between 11 December 2014 and 21 January 2015, the average brine inflow was around 200 cubic metres per hour. Between 22 January and 06 February 2015, the average brine inflow increased substantially, reaching approximately 820 cubic metres per hour. 

Accordingly, where underground equipment at Solikamsk 2 is not being used to mitigate the consequences of the collapse and water inflow, Uralkali has started to remove plant via the mine shaft. Three "Ural" continuous miners have already been dismantled and taken out. In line with their accident mitigation plan, Uralkali in a recent press release states: that the company continues to comprehensively monitor the situation both underground and at the surface; water inflows are monitored through brine level checks; groundwater levels are monitored by water monitoring wells and via the drilling of additional water monitoring wells currently in progress; gas levels are monitored around the sinkhole and in the mine; while the sinkhole is continuously monitored from a distance, using stationary cameras and air drones; and a seismologic network has been set up over the sinkhole area.

This latest collapse is one of a series of evaporite collapse dolines or sinkholes that have daylighted atop the mined regions in this part of Russia. Collapse cavities typically reach the surface some years after extraction operations below the collapse have ceased. For example, in 1995, a collapse sinkhole formed atop the Solikamsk-2 potash mine’s Verkhnekamsky deposit. The collapse on January 5th, 1995 resulted in a 4.7 magnitude seismic event on the Richter scale, with an associated initial 4.5 m of surface subsidence. Underground, the mine roof collapsed over an area measuring 600 m by 600 m. Across the period 1993 to 2005, several hundred earthquakes were recorded in the Berezniki-Solikamsk region with magnitudes varying from 2 to 5. These earthquakes were caused by collapsing underground tunnels of potash mines, mined out over the 70 continuous years of production. In October 2006, in order to prevent catastrophic outcomes of a sudden brine influx into the underground workings, Berezniki potash mine #1 was flooded by Uralkali. After that, three major sinkholes occurred in the region above the flooded workings.

On July 28th, 2007, a huge sinkhole appeared on the surface above the closed Berezniki mine #1, its creation likely aided by infiltration of undersaturated floodwaters water into the abandoned underground workings. At the surface this sinkhole had an initial size of 50 by 70 meters and was 15 meters deep. By November, 2008, the sinkhole had expanded into a crater measuring 437m by 323m and some 100 m deep.  The July 28th collapse released an estimated 900,000 cubic metres of gas (a mix of methane, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and other gases), which in turn led to gas explosions on the following day. Timely placement by the mine operators of a “significant volume” of backfill, prior to flooding, is credited with preventing further catastrophic collapses.

The mined potash ore level at both collapse sites (Solikamsk and Berezniki) is Middle Permian (Kungurian) in ag. The potash is halite-hosted and occurs in one of six evaporitic foreland sub-basins, extending from the Urals foreland to the Caspian basin. Sylvinite (potash) beneath the 1995 Verkhnekamsky collapse area was extracted from two to three halite-potash beds, with 10 to 16 metres of total extraction height. At that time the mine used a panel system of rooms and pillars under 200 to 400 m of overburden. Rooms were 13-16 m wide and pillars 11-14 m wide by 200 m long. Due to the relatively shallow nature of the Solikamsk and Berezniki potash ore levels, compared to other potash mines in the world, a “rule of thumb” used across the Upper Kama mining district is that surface subsidence typically reaches 50% of the subsurface excavation height around 48 months after excavation. 

The 1995 collapse event occurred 15 years after mining began, and 7 years after mining was completed in the area beneath the sinkhole. The delay before the main collapse doline surfaced implies there was a rigid bridging of overburden as a roof to the mine level. This is consistent with the uncommonly high release of seismic energy associated with the1995 collapse. The next largest collapses associated with published seismic measurements occurred in 1993 and 1997 with seismic magnitudes of 2.6 and 2.8, respectively.

An even earlier surface collapse occurred on July 25, 1986 atop a portion of the nearby 3rd Bereznki potash mine and is yet another case of a sinkhole forming atop a mine that was operating at relatively shallow depths. Potash extraction at Bereznki was active at depths of 235 and 425 m below surface. There, the targeted ore zone was overlain by a 100 m thick “salt complex” made up of halite and carnallite beds, overlain in turn by clays, carbonates, aquifers and sediments. Mining created “yield pillars,” with 5.3 m wide rooms, 3.8 m wide pillars and a 5.5 m mining height. After mining, conditions in mined-out areas were described as, “pillars crushed and roofs sagged.”

Observations of significant brine leakage into the 3rd Bereznki potash mine workings at a depth of 400m indicated a loss of hydraulic control as early as January of 1986. This was a prelude to the massive dissolution cavitation that was occurring in the 90 m interval of disturbed salt and clastics that overlay the potash level. Some 7 months later a large cavity formed in the sandstone/limestone overburden, which was nearly 200 m thick. In the mine it appeared the water inflow situation remained relatively stable, at least from January until July 1986. Failure of the mine head then occurred, the result of a cavity that had migrated vertically through more than 300m of limestones, mudstones and sandstones. 

Final cavity stoping was indicated by the near instantaneous appearance of a caprock sinkhole, which was 150 m deep and 40-80 m across and located at the top of a stoping breccia pipe or chimney of the same dimensions. Failure of this sequence began at 18:30 hours on July 25 with “clearly felt underground shocks” culminating with a final collapse at midnight, which was accompanied by an explosion with “flashes of light.” In the final stages of stoping by the rising solution pipe, before the sinkhole daylighted, it took only 12 days to migrate through the last 100 metres of mudstone. This very high rate of stoping was likely aided by structural weakness in a fracture zone along a local fold axis.

In all these cases of rapid sinkhole creation, the collapse occurred above what was formerly an active area of the mine  and took place some years after mining had ceased. In all cases, the ultimate cause of the size of the collapse was likely a combination of a significant cavity growth below what was a mechanically strong rock rock, likely a dolomite or a limestone bed. This unit had significant structural integrity and so allowed a solution cavity to expand prior to the ultimate brittle collapse of roof rock. Once collapse did occur, undersaturated groundwaters, sourced in the overburden, then reached the salt level in large volumes and further expanded the region of collapse. Likewise, once the upward stoping cavity reached the shallower unconsolidated sediment levels, the cavity's passage to the surface sped up so that it daylighted and expanded in a rapid fashion.  

Dissolving evaporites and solution dolines occur naturally in all parts of the world, wherever salt is within a few hundred metres of the landsurface, but mining of both salt and potash at depths shallower than 250-350 metres can exacerbate the speed and and intensity of what is an ongoing natural process of evaporite solution, surface collapse and sinkhole growth. While Uralkali's operations in this region continue to exploit a relatively shallow potash ore source, it will continue to supply the Company a relatively inexpensive product, but the company will have live with sinkholes breaking out above some areas of the mined region. That is, as long as Uralkali can continue to be a low cost supplier of potash, there will be likely be ongoing landsurface-stability problems. Some of the problems may not daylight until years after the extraction operation has ceased.


Recent Posts


Tags

Five Island salt dome trend Kara bogaz gol causes of glaciation Ripon Ingebright Lake mass die-back sulfate vadose zone sinkhole 18O Turkmenistan Evaporite-source rock association stable isotope namakier carbon cycle Koppen climate snake-skin chert cryogenic salt Paleoproterozoic Oxygenation Event Realmonte potash Danakhil Depression, Afar hydrogen Archean sedimentary copper ancient climate Lomagundi Event allo-suture causes of major extinction events RHOB magadiite Hyperarid Calyptogena ponderosa well logs in evaporites Enceladus white smokers salt seal deep seafloor hypersaline anoxic basin Density log Sulphate of potash gypsum dune Dead Sea caves North Pole Messinian knistersalz salt ablation breccia nuclear waste storage non solar heating salts marine brine McMurdo Sound sepiolite Schoenite Warrawoona Group HYC Pb-Zn Kalush Potash capillary zone Muriate of potash brine lake edge sulfur Stebnik Potash collapse doline well log interpretation antarcticite Ceres saline giant endosymbiosis sulphur End-Permian Mesoproterozoic halite-hosted cave rockburst halocarbon perchlorate flowing salt halite lazurite Catalayud eolian transport Clayton Valley playa: black salt Large Igneous Magmatic Province extraterrestrial salt water on Mars K2O from Gamma Log Patience Lake member crocodile skin chert Deep natural geohazard chert Zabuye Lake seal capacity supercontinent halophile MgSO4 enriched evaporite dissolution sulphate Pilbara Neoproterozoic zeolite Ganymede astrakanite basinwide evaporite Prograde salt salting-out salt karst Dead Sea karst collapse Koeppen Climate geohazard potash ore oil gusher Hadley Cell recurring slope lines (RSL) DHAL mummifiction cryogenic spring salts blowout bischofite GR log Pangaea Dallol saltpan Badenian gas outburst High Magadi beds brine pan Corocoro copper supercritical phase sodium silicate evaporite jadarite African rift valley lakes Atlantis II Deep MOP Mega-monsoon evaporite karst Boulby Mine silica solubility York (Whitehall) Mine Prairie Evaporite H2S LIP Lake Magadi auto-suture palygorskite hydrothermal halite vanished evaporite salt tectonics Deep seafloor hypersaline anoxic lake nitrogen waste storage in salt cavity anthropogenically enhanced salt dissolution SedEx climate control on salt carnallitite phreatomagmatic explosion NaSO4 salts anomalous salt zones Weeks Island salt mine Great Salt Lake methane Dead Sea saltworks halogenated hydrocarbon Magdalen's Road salt mine methanogenesis Musley potash cauliflower chert salt periphery lot's wife wireline log interpretation NPHI log Lake Peigneur stevensite kainitite salt trade End-Triassic Hell Kettle hydrohalite Zaragoza Salar de Atacama Bathymodiolus childressi lithium carbonate Ure Terrace authigenic silica 13C enrichment halotolerant subsidence basin Phaneozoic climate deep meteoric potash nacholite dark salt potash ore price gassy salt potash Stebnyk potash hydrothermal anhydrite silicified anhydrite nodules Crescent potash gas in salt well blowout phreatic explosion SOP retrograde salt Proterozoic End-Cretaceous bedded potash phreatic evaporite solar concentrator pans McArthur River Pb-Zn Quaternary climate source rock brine evolution carbon oxygen isotope cross plots dissolution collapse doline Europe extrasalt hydrological indicator ozone depletion MVT deposit Stolz diapir mine stability Neoproterozoic Oxygenation Event evaporite-hydrocarbon association solikamsk 2 Belle Plain Member Red Sea doline water in modern-day Mars gem alkaline lake venice Noril'sk Nickel epsomite Lop Nor hectorite Jefferson Island salt mine Mars circum-Atlantic Salt Basins evaporite-metal association CO2 CO2: albedo hydrothermal potash Belle Isle salt mine sinjarite Lop Nur CaCl2 brine lapis lazuli Neutron Log dihedral angle Lamellibrachia luymesi Mulhouse Basin Gamma log Karabogazgol mirabilite halokinetic hydrothermal karst anthropogenic potash salt leakage, dihedral angle, halite, halokinesis, salt flow, lunette Beebe hydrothermal field Mixing zone intrasalt trona supercritical halite seawater evolution Hadley cell: saline clay Precambrian evaporites intersalt Seepiophila jonesi salt suture lithium battery organic matter freefight lake Ethiopia 13C Platform evaporite SO2 Sumo methanotrophic symbionts 18O enrichment base metal tachyhydrite Thiotrphic symbionts lithium brine MgSO4 depleted DHAB meta-evaporite vestimentiferan siboglinids

Archive