Salty Matters

The Blog is written by me, John Warren. Once every three or four weeks or so I will post an article or two on an evaporite topic that has piqued my interest. On the Saltwork Publications webpage (under "the Works") there is a growing library of pdfs and epubs based on these blogs. These articles on the website have much higher resolution extractable graphics in than in the blog. There is also a link to this set of pdfs and epubs on the home page (

Aeolian Gypsum and Saline Pans - an indicator of climate change

John Warren - Friday, June 30, 2017


Evaporites deposited as aeolian dunes are not commonplace in Quaternary successions and not yet documented in any pre-Quaternary succession (Table 1). These eolian deposits are deposited above the water table in a vadose setting, generally in a degrading playa or salt lake hydrology. Consequently, there is an inherent low preservation potential for this style of evaporite; most documented examples are less than a few tens of thousands of years old.


Even though relatively rare as an evaporite type, the presence of eolian evaporites, usually as gypsum dunes or lunettes with associated soils and saline mudflats, does indicate particular climatic and hydrological conditions. Eolian gypsum deposits may have possible counterparts in the Martian landscape (Szynkiewicz et el., 2010).

Over the Quaternary and across the Australian continental interior, increased aridity is expressed by episodes of dune reactivation, lake basin deflation with eroded sediment accumulating downwind in transverse dunes or lunettes (Bowler, 1973; Fitzsimmons et al., 2007), Deposition is tied to increased dust mobility (Hesse and McTainsh, 2003) and reduced river discharge and channel size (Nanson et al., 1995). Such responses to increasing landscape aridity in saline groundwater sumps are seen in most arid to semi-arid regions of the world where water tables are falling, usually driven by increasing aridity.

This article focuses on eroded subaerial evaporites as a response to increasing aridity, especially the formation of gypsum dunes and lunettes (Table 1; Figure 1).

Gypsum dune styles and saline pans

Figure 1 and Table 1 plot documented occurrences of eolian gypsum across the world, overlain on a Koeppen climate base (Figure 1a). Figure 1b plots the latitudinal occurrences of documented gypsum dunes versus elevation and Koppen climate type. Figures 1c and 1d plot the detail of these same occurrences for the USA and Australia, where individual deposits are better documented. At the worldscale, there is an obvious tie to the world's desert belts with occurrences consistently situated in regions of the cool dry descending cells of northern and southern hemisphere Hadley cells (positions indicated by light blue rectangles in Figure 1b - See also Salty Matters article from Jan. 31, 2017). Many occurrences are also situated in Late Pleistocene to Holocene climate transition zones, marked by aridification at the transition from Late Pleistocene to Holocene climates, and in many case tied to transitions from perennial saline lakes and mega-lakes to continental saltflats to dunes and interdunal pans, An example of a quartz sand erg association (downwind of a gypsiferous strandzone) is seen in the transition area into the southern Kallakoopah Pans from the northern margin of Lake Eyre, Australia and its megalake precursor (Figure 2).

At the local scale, gypsum dunes generally occur downwind or atop a saline pan or playa that is, or was, recently subject to a lowering of its lacustrine watertable. In many situations the elongation of individual pan shapes line up in an orthogonal direction to the dominant wind and so also show an eolian control, like the associated gypsum dune position and alignment (Figure 3). Wind-aligned lakes and sumps and oriented-pans are much more numerous with a broader climatic range than gypsum dunes (Goudie and Wells, 1995; Goudie et al., 2016). When present, eolian bedforms associated with oriented pans lacking evaporites are dominated by clay pellets or quartz sand.

Many of the pan edge dunes show crescent shapes and so are termed lunettes. (Figure 3; Bowler, 1973). Lunette sediments range in composition from quartz-rich to sandy clay, gypsiferous clay to nearly pure gypsum. Pure quartz dune lunettes likely formed under lake-full conditions, and so show a distinct hydrology from that of the clay pellet or gypsum-rich varieties, which form by deflation of subaerially-exposed adjacent lake floors. The flocculation of suspended clays into pellets requires some degree of salinity but is less than that required to precipitate gypsum.

Lunette sediments range in composition from quartz-rich, sandy clay, through gypseous clay to nearly pure gypsum. Pure quartz dunes formed under lake-full conditions and are distinct from that of the clay and gypsum-rich varieties, which formed by flocculation and deflation from adjacent subaerially exposed lake floors. (Bowler, 1986). Gypsum and pelleted clay dunes (lunettes) line the edges of many salt lakes and playas in southeastern, southern and southwestern Australia; Prungle Lakes and Lake Fowler (gypsum lunettes), Lake Tyrell (clay lunette with occassional gypsum enrichment) and Lake Mungo (quartz sand lunette). All these lunettes are lake or pan-edge relicts from the Late Pleistocene deflationary period, when the lacustrine hydrology changed from perennial water-filled lakes to desiccated mudflats. Likewise, there are gypsum dunes in deflationary depressions in Salt Flat Playa and the Bonneville/Great Salt Lake region of Utah (Figure 4; Table 1).

Internal sedimentary structures in many of these lake-edge gypsum dunes or lunettes show tabular cross beds with consistent bedform orientation. Many lack abundant trough or festoon cross beds, suggesting consistent wind directions (Jones 1953; Bowler, 1973, 1983). Grain constituents clearly indicate deflation of former lake sediments, which were mostly vadose prior to deflation and passage into the dunes (Figure 4).

Gypsum dunes are part of a much broader lake-edge eolian sandflat association with the lakes often supplying large volumes of quartzose eolian sediment into adjacent sand seas or ergs (Figure 2; Warren, 2016). As mentioned pan-edge dunes described as ‘lunettes’ have a characteristic crescentic shape, other lake edge dunes may show more linear or longitudinal outlines, sometimes with parts of large sand seas or ergs being fed by the deflation of the salt lake or pan as at the southern edge of the Simpson Desert in Australia where it is in contact with the expanding and contracting edge of (Lake Eyre Figure 2).

Hydrological transitions from downwind evaporite dunes and lunettes

The role of salts, groundwater oscillations and the associated lake water levels/watertables are critical in creating eolian evaporites. Typically, once seasonal drying of an increasing arid lake floor sump begins, remaining surface waters with suspended clay become saline enough for the clay to flocculate and sink to the bottom of the desiccating water mass. If surface water concentration continues and the water surface sinks into the sediments to become a saline water table, then secondary gypsum prisms and nodules grow within the capillary zone of already-deposited sediment. In waters that are increasingly saline but not saturated with gypsum or halite, pelletization can continue to occur in the capillary fringe of clayey surface sediment (Figure 5).

Ongoing seasonal aridity further lowers the watertable in a saline mudflat, so the upper part of the vadose sediment column leaves the top of the capillary zone. It then deflates, leading to an accumulation of sand-sized sediment in adjacent eolian lunettes. If there is a prevailing wind direction, this builds significant volumes of dune sediment in a particular wind-aligned quadrant of the saline pan edge. Whether clay pellets or gypsum crystals are the dominant lunette component depends on the humidity inherent to the pan climate. In hyperarid situations, halite can be an eolian component in the lake hydrology (Salar de Uyuni; Svendsen, 2003).

In some lunettes, the mineralogy changes according to climate-driven changes in the hydrogeochemistry of the lake waters sourcing the lunette. For example in the Lake Tyrell lunette in semi-arid southwest Australia, the sediments in a layer range from clay pellets (75%) and dolomite (25%) in somewhat humid times of deflation to layers, with gypsum making up >90%, indicative of a more arid hydrochemistry. Lunettes associated with the shrinkage and deflation of Late Pleistocene Estancia megalake (New Mexico, USA) show similar variations in the proportions of clay pellet and gypsum sands in lake margin deposits around the edges of up to 120 blowout depressions. These blowouts define the former extent of the shrinking megalake and encompass both shoreline and lunette sands (Allen and Anderson, 2000)

Thus, the presence of an active gypsum lunette-field at a saline pan or playa edge is tied to landscape instability and a change from more humid to more arid conditions. To form a lunette requires a change in climate and an associated change in pan or playa hydrology and it hydrological base level and lake edge water table level, over time frames typically measured in hundreds to thousands of years.


Not just sand and dust-sized particles

Coarser than sand-sized gypsum crystals are transported in in lake margin mounds under hyperarid windy conditions that typify ephemeral pans and saline mudflats in parts of the Andean Altiplano and even higher elevations in the alpine tundra climatic zones. Salar Gorbea is a type example for this type of coarse-grained eolian transport (Figure 6; Benison, 2017). Whirlwinds, dry convective helical vortices, can move large gypsum crystals in their passage over the saline muflat. The transported gravel-sized crystals are entrained on the saline pan surface, after they first grew subaqueously in shallow surface brine pools. Once the pools dry up the crystal clusters disaggrate and then are transported as much as 5 km to be deposited in large dune-like mounds.

The dune gravel is cemented relatively quickly by gypsum cement precipitating from near-surface saline groundwater, resulting in a gypsum breccia. This documentation marks the first occurrence of gravel-sized evaporite grains being moved efficiently in air by suspension and provides a new possible interpretation for some ancient breccias and conglomerates, and improves understanding of limits of extremity of Earth surface environments.



Allen, B. D., and R. Y. Anderson, 2000, A continuous, high-resolution record of late Pleistocene climate variability from the Estancia basin, New Mexico: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 112, p. 1444-1458.

Arakel, A. V., 1980, Genesis and diagenesis of Holocene evaporitic sediments in Hutt and Leeman lagoons, Western Australia: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 50, p. 1305-1326.

Benison, K. C., 2017, Gypsum gravel devils in Chile: Movement of largest natural grains by wind?: Geology, v. 45, p. 423-426.

Bowler, J. M., 1973, Clay dunes: their occurrence, formation and environmental significance: Earth-Science Reviews, v. 9, p. 315-338.

Bowler, J. M., 1983, Lunettes as indices of hydrologic change; a review of Australian evidence: Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, v. 95, p. 147-168.

Bowler, J. M., 1986, Spatial variability and hydrologic evolution of Australian lake basins; analogue for Pleistocene hydrologic change and evaporite formation: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 54, p. 21-41.

Chavdarian, G. V., and D. Y. Sumner, 2011, Origin and evolution of polygonal cracks in hydrous sulphate sands, White Sands National Monument, New Mexico: Sedimentology, v. 58, p. 407-423.

Chen, X. Y., J. M. Bowler, and J. W. Magee, 1991, Aeolian landscapes in central Australia; gypsiferous and quartz dune environments from Lake Amadeus: Sedimentology, v. 38, p. 519-538.

Chen, X. Y., J. R. Prescott, and J. T. Hutton, 1990, Thermoluminescence dating on gypseous dunes of Lake Amadeus, central Australia: Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 37, p. 93-101.

Dutkiewicz, A., C. C. Von der Borch, and J. R. Prescott, 2002, Geomorphology of the Lake Malata-Lake Greenly complex, South Australia, and its implications for Late Quaternary Palaeoclimate: Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia, v. 126, p. 103-115.

Eardley, A. J., 1962, Gypsum dunes and evaporite history of the Great Salt Lake Desert: Utah Geol. and Mineralog. Survey Spec. Studies vol. 2, 27 p.

Fitzsimmons, K. E., 2007, Morphological variability in the linear dunefields of the Strzelecki and Tirari Deserts, Australia: Geomorphology, v. 91, p. 146-160.

Forti, P., E. Galli, and A. Rossi, 2004 Los mecanismos minerogenéticos activos en las Pozas, in G. Badino, T. Bernabei, A. de Vivo, I. Giulivo, and G. Savino, eds., Bajo el desierto, el misterio de las aguas de Cuatro Cíenegas, La Venta Esplorazioni Geografiche, Instituto Coahuilense de Ecología, Gobierno del Estado de Coahuila & Tintoretto Edizioni, p. 122–125.

Goudie, A., P. Kent, and H. Viles, 2016, Pan morphology, Distribution and formation in Kazakhstan and Neighbouring areas of the Russian federation: Desert, v. 21, p. 1-13.

Goudie, A. S., and G. L. Wells, 1995, The nature, distribution and formation of pans in arid zones: Earth Science Reviews, v. 38, p. 1-69.

Hesse, P. P., and G. H. McTainsh, 2003, Australian dust deposits: modern processes and the Quaternary record: Quaternary Science Reviews, v. 22, p. 2007-2035.

Holser, W. T., B. J. Javor, and C. Pierre, 1981, Geochemistry and Geology of Salt Pans at Guerrero Negro, Baja California: Field trip Guide No 1. Prepared for the Geological Society of America, Cordilleran Section, Annual Meeting, March 22-24, 1981.

Hussain, M., and J. K. Warren, 1989, Nodular and enterolithic gypsum; the ''sabkha-tization'' of Salt Flat Playa, West Texas: Sedimentary Geology, v. 64, p. 13-24.

Jones, D. J., 1953, Gypsum-Oolite Dunes, Great Salt Lake Desert, Utah: Bulletin American Association Petroleum Geologists, v. 37, p. 2530-2538.

Kinsman, D. J. J., 1969, Modes of formation, sedimentary associations, and diagnostic features of shallow-water and supratidal evaporites: Bulletin American Association of Petroleum Geologists, v. 53, p. 830-840.

Kottek, M., J. Grieser, C. Beck, B. Rudolf, and F. Rubel, 2006, World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated: Meteorologische Zeitschrift, v. 15, p. 259-263.

Langford, R. P., 2003, The Holocene history of the White Sands dune field and influences on eolian deflation and playa lakes: Quaternary International, v. 104, p. 31-39.

Magee, J. W., 1991, Late Quaternary lacustrine, groundwater, aeolian and pedogenic gypsum in the Prungle Lakes, southeastern Australia: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 84, p. 229-257.

Mainguet, M., and C. Jacqueminet, 1984, Le Grand Erg Occidental et le Grand Erg Oriental. Classification des dunes, balance sédimentaire et dynamique d'ensemble. (Grand Erg Occidental and Grand Erg Oriental. Classification of the dunes, sediment balances and overall dynamics): Travaux de l'Institut de Géographie de Reims, 59-60:29-48. (in French).

Minckley, W. L., 1969, Environments of the Bolsón of Cuatro Ciénegas, Coahuila, México: Texas Western Press, The University of Texas at El Paso, Science Series, Number 2, 65 pages.

Minckley, W. L., 1992, Three Decades near Cuatro Cienegas, Mexico: Photographic Documentation and a Plea for Area Conservation: Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, v. 26, p. 89-118.

Minckley, W. L., and G. A. Cole, 1968, Preliminary Limnologic Information on Waters of the Cuatro Cienegas Basin, Coahuila, Mexico: The Southwestern Naturalist, v. 13, p. 421-431.

Nanson, G. C., X. Y. Chen, and D. M. Price, 1995, Aeolian and fluvial evidence of changing climate and wind patterns during the past 100 ka in the western Simpson Desert, Australia: Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology, v. 113, p. 87-102.

Svendsen, J. B., 2003, Parabolic halite dunes on the Salar de Uyuni, Bolivia: Sedimentary Geology, v. 155, p. 147-156.

Szynkiewicz, A., R. C. Ewing, C. H. Moore, M. Glamoclija, D. Bustos, and L. M. Pratt, 2010, Origin of terrestrial gypsum dunes--Implications for Martian gypsum-rich dunes of Olympia Undae: Geomorphology, v. 121, p. 69-83.

Warren, J. K., 1982, Hydrologic setting, occurrence, and significance of gypsum in late Quaternary salt lakes, South Australia: Sedimentology, v. 29, p. 609-637.

Warren, J. K., 2016, Evaporites: A compendium (ISBN 978-3-319-13511-3): Berlin, Springer, 1854 p.

White, K., and N. Drake, 1993, Mapping the distribution and abundance of gypsum in south-central Tunisia from Landsat Thematic Mapper data: Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie, v. 37, p. 309-325.

Wilkins, D. E., and D. R. Currey, 1999, Radiocarbon chronology and δ13C analysis of mid- to late-Holocene aeolian environments, Guadalupe Mountains National Park, Texas, USA: Holocene, v. 9, p. 363-372.

Zheng, H. B., C. M. A. Powell, and H. Zhao, 2002, Eolian and lacustrine evidence of late Quaternary palaeoenvironmental changes in southwestern Australia: Global and Planetary Change, v. 35, p. 75-92.



Evaporites and climate: Part 2 of 2 - Ancient evaporites

John Warren - Saturday, February 25, 2017


Evaporites, along with coal and bauxites, are sediments considered to be climate sensitive. Ancient evaporite distribution and associated paleolatitudes are used to reconstruct the distribution of the world's arid belts across time. As we saw in Part 1 (Salty Matters, Tuesday, January 31, 2017), thick, widespread evaporite deposit are essentially a result of the atmospheric circulation of the Hadley cells. That is, locations of subtropical dry zones and tropical/subtropical deserts of the globe are mostly determined by the positions of subsiding branches of cool, dry descending air in a Hadley cells (aka Trade Wind Belt; Lu et al., 2007; Crowley and North, 1991) within low-lying regions tied a sufficient supply of mother brine. Thus, climate plus ongoing brine supply are the underlying factors controlling locales of significant evaporite deposition (Ziegler et al., 1981). The previous article focused on regional and local climatic controls across the Quaternary (Salty Matters, Tuesday, January 31, 2017). This article extends the time frame for the evaporite/climate association across the Phanerozoic and into the Precambrian.

As we move back in time, we move out of an icehouse-dominated world climate, with permanent ice caps waxing and waning at the world's poles, into greenhouse-dominant world climates. In greenhouse times there are no permanent polar ice sheet and glaciers occurred only in some high-altitude mountainous belts (Figure 1a, b). The transition into greenhouse climate changes the dominant 4th-order eustatic style from 100m amplitude changes every 100,000 years or so into 4th-order responses with much lower 3-5 m amplitude oscillations every 100,000 years (Figure 2a, b). Lack of polar caps raises world sealevel on the order of 40-50 metres. Thus, even without tectonic considerations, there is less continental freeboard in greenhouse times and increased the potential for significant cratonic coverage by epicontinental and pericontinental seaways (Warren, 2016; Chapter 5).

Looking back in time, beyond the last few million years of the Quaternary, means our conceptual models must encompass a broader range of tectonic settings as well as changes in the rates of seafloor spreading, supercontinents, and times of significant igneous outpourings (superplumes). All these additional world-scale variables across a longer set of available time explain the greater range of climate potentials on the earth, compared to anything that has occurred in the time-limited base seen in icehouse-dominant Quaternary climate spreads. The last few million years of the current icehouse mode is inhabited by the human species or its primate ancestors. The previous Icehouse dominant mode was in the Carboniferous-Mid Permian when the dominant land animals were amphibians and primitive reptiles.
One the first questions this broader ancient climate spectrum, tied to evaporites over deep time, offers up is; "How do the positions of Hadley cells vary across geological time frames?" In part 1, we saw how the rise of the Himalayas deflected a belt of cool, dry descending air much further south toward the Equator. Moving back in time creates a broader scaffolding for documenting climate variation, in part driven by the rise and fall of mountain ranges, but also influenced by increases in the rate of seafloor spreading driving ocean basin shallowing and by changes in atmospheric/seawater compositions and temperatures.

Hadley cells and latitudinal variability over time
According to Chen Xu et al., 2013 and Boucot et al., 2013, much of the world-scale Phanerozoic distribution of significant bedded evaporite accumulations indicates the ongoing presence of two mid-latitude arid belts, presumably situated beneath Hadley Cells. There are exceptions in locales generated in local rain shadows with orographic control provided by neighbouring mountain ranges. However, in the later Permian, through the Triassic, and much of the Jurassic the two formerly mid-latitude Hadley Cells merged over the more central Pangaeanic regions of Africa, Europe and the adjacent Americas, to form an arid belt that also encompassed low-latitude, equatorial arid regions (Figure 3). Across the continental interior of the Pangean supercontinent, this arid to hyperarid equatorial belt in the supercontinent interior prevented the formation of climate-sensitive sediments that are more typical of humid equatorial conditions that deposit coals, kaolinites, lateritic materials and bauxites. However, in this same time interval, these more humid sediment products are typically present at low latitudes of these time slices adjacent to the Panthalassic ocean.
That is, in the absence of an equator-spanning supercontinent, low latitudes, typically imply humid and non-seasonal tropical conditions throughout much of the Phanerozoic, as we see today. But the assembly of the Pangaean supercontinent disrupted this latitudinally-zoned atmospheric circulation, replacing it with a progressively more monsoonal (seasonal) circulation and more arid, at times hyperarid, conditions in the equatorial continental interior of Pangaea (Parrish, 1993). The Pangean supercontinent reached its maximum areal extent in the Triassic and was associated with what is known as the Pangaean Megamonsoon. There were immense arid regions across the interior regions of the supercontinent that were nearly uninhabitable, with scorching days and frigid nights. However, Panthalassian coasts still experienced seasonality, transitioning from rainy weather in the summer to dry conditions during the winter and the associated accumulation of humid sediments (Figure 3b' Boucot et al., 2013). Megamonsoon aridity is evidenced not just in the accumulation of low-latitude bedded evaporite deposits. Low latitude continental aridity also drove the accumulation of thick, widespread low-latitude desert redbeds, sourced by eolian, not fluvial, detrital transport (Sweet at al., 2013) and the precipitation of bedded salt crusts in ephemeral saline lakes under exceptionally-high surface temperatures of up to 73°C (Zambito and Benison, 2013).
Paleolatitude reconstructions Chen-Xu et al. (2013) show these continental interior arid belts in low latitude tropical-subtropical regions persisted from the Permian to the Early Cretaceous. Reunion of the humid regions from both sides of Pangaea by the early Late Cretaceous formed a through-going low latitude humid tropical-subtropical belt. This coincides with the disaggregation of Pangaean supercontinent, as the initial stages of a modern latitudinal climate belt distribution pattern emerged, tied to latitudinally-restricted evaporites that continue to the present (Figure 4).

Tectonism and eustacy in arid climates drive the formation of mega-evaporite basins
Within this Phanerozoic climatic framework, there are times when significant volumes of evaporites form what are know as saline giants, or megahalite/megasulphates deposits. These massive accumulations of salts formed beneath arid climates that can span both greenhouse and icehouse climates (Figure 1; Warren, 2010, 2016). Ancient marine saline giants (megahalites and megasulphates) accrued in either of two plate-scale settings, which at times merged into one another, namely; 1) Platform evaporites (Figure 5) and, 2) Basinwide evaporites (Figure 6).

The first major contrast with nonmarine continental dominance in Quaternary evaporite settings is the fact that platform evaporites require greenhouse eustasy a and a marine feed, the second is that basinwide evaporites require tectonically- and hydrographically-isolated widespread subsealevel depressions, typically found along plate edges with continent-continent proximity in regions with a marine seepage feed and/or periodic marine overflows (Figure 6). Neither platform or basinwide conditions are present on the current earth surface. For basinwides, suitable hydrologic conditions were last present during the Messinian Salinity Crisis in the Mediterranean region, and platform evaporite settings were last present on earth across large parts of the Middle East carbonate platform during the Eocene (Tables 1, 2). There is a third group of ancient evaporite deposits; it encompasses all nonmarine lacustrine beds past and present (Table 3). This group has same-scale modern-ancient counterparts, unlike ancient marine platform and basinwide evaporites (Warren, 2010, 2016). Interestingly, the lacustrine depositional style for bedded salt accumulation dominates in the icehouse climate that is the Quaternary, and so biases a strictly uniformitarian view of the past with respect to the relative proportions of nonmarine versus marine evaporite volumes (see Part 1; Salty Matters, Tuesday, January 31, 2017).

Platform evaporites
Are made up of stratiform beds, usually <50 m thick and composed of stacked <1 to 5 m thick parasequences or evaporite cycles, with a variably-present restricted-marine carbonate unit at a cycle base (Table 1). Salts were deposited as mixed evaporitic mudflat and saltern evaporites, sometimes with local accumulations of bittern salts. Typically, platform salts were deposited in laterally extensive (>50-100 km wide), hydrographically-isolated, subsealevel marine-seepage lagoons (salterns) and evaporitic mudflats (sabkhas and salinas). These regions have no same-scale modern counterparts and extended as widespread depositional sheets across large portions of hydrographically isolated marine platform areas that passed seaward across a subaerial seepage barrier into open marine sediments (Figure 5). In marine margin epeiric settings, such as the Jurassic Arab/Hith and Permian Khuff cycles of the Middle East or the Cretaceous Ferry Lake Anhydrite in the Gulf of Mexico, these platform evaporites are intercalated with shoalwater marine-influenced carbonate shelf/ramp sediments, which in turn pass basinward across a subaerial sill into open marine carbonates. Landward they pass into arid zone continental siliciclastics or carbonate mudflats.


Platform evaporite deposition occurred in both pericontinental and epicontinental settings, at times of low-amplitude 4th and 5th order sealevel changes, which typify greenhouse eustasy (Figure 5; Warren, 2010). Platform evaporites also typify the saline stages of some intracratonic basins. Platform evaporites cannot form in the high-amplitude, high-frequency sealevel changes of Icehouse eustasy. The 100m+ amplitude oscillations of Icehouse times mean sealevel falls off the shelf edge every 100,000 years, so any evaporite that had formed on the platform is subaerially exposed and leached. Fourth order high-amplitude icehouse eustatic cycles also tend to prevent laterally-continuous carbonate sediment barriers forming at the top of the shelf to slope break, and so icehouse evaporite systems tend not to be hydro-graphically isolated (drawdown) at the platform scale. Rather icehouse eustasy favours nonmarine evaporites as the dominant style, along with small ephemeral marine-margin salt bodies, as seen today in the bedded Holocene halites and gypsums of Lake Macleod in coastal West Australia (Part 1; Salty Matters, Tuesday, January 31, 2017).
Ancient platform evaporite successions may contain halite beds, especially in intracratonic basinwide settings, but periplatform settings, outside of intracratonic basins, are typically dominated by 5–40 m thick Ca-sulphate beds intercalated with normal-marine platform carbonates (Table 1). The lateral extent of these epeiric platform sulphate bodies, like the Middle Anhydrite Member of the Permian Khuff Fm. of Saudi Arabia and the UAE, with a current area of more than 1,206,700 sq. km., constitute some of the most aerially-extensive evaporite beds ever deposited.

Basinwide evaporites
Are made up of thick evaporite units >50–100 m thick made up of varying combinations of deepwater and shallow water evaporites (Figure 1; Table 2). They retain textural evidence of different but synchronous local depositional settings, including mudflat, saltern, slope and basin (Figure 6). When basinwide evaporite deposition occurs, the whole basin hydrology is evaporitic, holomictic, and typically saturated with the same mineral phase across vast areas of the basin floor, as seen on a much smaller scale today in the Dead Sea basin. The Dead Sea currently has halite forming simultaneously as; 1) decimeter-thick chevron-dominated beds on the saline-pan floor of the shallow parts around the basin edge in waters typically less than 1-10 metres deep, and 2) as coarse inclusion-poor crystal meshworks of halite on the deep basin floor that sits below a halite-saturated brine column up to hundreds of metres deep. Ancient basinwide successions are usually dominated by thick massive salt beds, generally more than 100-500 m thick. Deposits are made up of stacked thick halite beds, but can also contain substantial volumes of thick-bedded Ca-sulphate and evaporitic carbonate, as in the intracratonic basinwide accumulations of the Delaware and Otto Fiord Ba-sins (Table 2).
Owing to inherent purity and thickness of the deposited halite, many halite-dominant basinwide beds are also remobilized, via loading or tectonics, into various halokinetic geometries (Hudec and Jackson, 2007). Some basinwide systems (mostly marine-fed intracratonic settings) entrain significant accumulations of marine-fed potash salts, as in the Devonian Prairie Evaporite of western Canada. In contrast, all Quaternary examples of commercial potash deposits are accumulating in continental lacustrine systems (Warren 2016; Chapter 11).


Basinwide evaporite deposits are the result of a combination of tectonic and hydrological circumstances that are not currently active on the world’s surface (Figure 1). They were last active in the Late Miocene (Messinian), in association with soft-suture collision basins tied to the Alpine-Himalaya orogenic belt, and in Middle Miocene (Badenian) basins developed in the early rift stages of the Red Sea. Basinwide systems will be active again in the future at sites and times of appropriate plate-plate interaction, when two continental plate edges are nearby, and the intervening seafloor is in or near a plate-edge rift or suture and is both subsealevel and hydrographically isolated (Figure 6). Unlike most platform evaporites, basinwides do not require greenhouse eustacy, only the appropriate association of arid climate and tectonics. The latter sets up a deep hydrographically-isolated subsealevel tectonic depression with a geohydrology that can draw on a huge reserve of marine mother brine in the nearby ocean. For this reason, saline giants tend to form at times of plate-scale continent-continent proximity and so occur mostly in craton-margin settings.


Lacustrine (nonmarine) evaporites
Quaternary continental playa/lacustrine are constructed of stratiform salt units, with the greater volume of saline sediment accumulating in lower, more-saline portions of the lacustrine landscape. Beds are usually dominated by nodular gypsum and displacive halite, deposited in extensive evaporitic mudflats and saltpans with textures heavily overprinted by capillary wicking, rather than as bedded bottom-nucleated layers on the subaqueous floors of perennial brine lakes (Ruch et al., 2012). In ancient counterparts, the total saline lacustrine thickness ranged from meters to hundreds of meters, with lateral extents measured in tens to hundreds of kilometres (Table 3). Lacustrine salt beds are separated vertically, and usually surrounded by, deposits of lacustrine muds, alluvial fans, ephemeral streams, sheet floods, eolian sands, and redbeds. As today, ancient lacustrine salts accumulated in endorheic or highly restricted discharge basins, with perennial saline water masses tending to occur in the drainage sumps of steep-sided drainage basins (Warren, 2010, 2016). Saline lake basins accumulating gypsum, or more saline salts like halite or glauberite, typically have a shallow water table in peripheral saline mudflat areas and so are dominated by continental sabkha textures. Nearby is the lowermost part of the lacustrine depression or sump where deposition is typified by ephemeral ponded brine pan deposits, rather than permanent saline waters.
Saline lacustrine mineralogies depend on compositions of inflowing waters, so depositional sumps in regions with non-marine ionic proportions in the feeder inflow, accumulate thick sequences of nonmarine bedded salts dominated by trona, glauberite, and thenardite. In contrast, nonmarine areas with thalassic (seawater-like) inflows tend to accumulate more typical sequences of halite, gypsum, and anhydrite.
Across the Pliocene-Quaternary icehouse, less-saline perennial saline-lake beds tend to occur during more humid climate periods in the same continental-lacustrine depressions where saline-pan beds form (e.g., Lake Magadi, Great Salt Lake, Lake Urmia). On a smaller scale, in some modern saline lake basins, parts of the lake floor can be permanently located below the water surface (Northern Basin in the Dead Sea or Lake Asal). In some modern saline sumps dominated by mudflats, a perennial saline lake water mass is located toward the edge of a more central salt-flat zone, forming a perennial water filled “moat” facies surrounding a seasonally desiccated saline pan (as in Salar, de Atacama, Salar de Uyuni, Lake Magadi, Lake Natron). These permanent to near-permanent saline water “moat” regions are typically created where fresher inflows encounter saltier beds of the lake centre, dissolve them, and so form water-filled peripheral depressions. Bottom sediment in the moats tends to be mesohaline carbonate laminites, which can contain TOC levels as high as 12%.
High-water stage perennial saline lacustrine sediments tend to be carbonate-rich or silica-rich (diatomaceous) laminites. Ancient examples of large saline lacustrine deposits made up of alternating humid and desiccated lacustrine units include the Eocene Green River Formation of Wyoming and the Permian Pingdiquan Formation of the Junggar Basin, China (Table 4). Evaporites deposited in a suprasealevel lacustrine basin (especially Neogene deposits) have numerous same-scale Quaternary analogues, unlike the more voluminous ancient marine platform and basinwide evaporites (Figure 7). Clearly, across the Quaternary, saline continent lacustrine settings possess areas of bedded salt accumulation that are far greater than those of any contemporaneous marine-fed salt sumps (Part 1; Salty Matters, Tuesday, January 31, 2017). But in ancient climes, especially during in the continental interior of the Pangean supercontinent (mid Permian to Triassic), regions of continental interior sabkhas and saline pans had areas far greater than any seen in Quaternary continental saline sumps (Zambia and Benison, 2013).

Is the present-day climate the key to evaporite understanding?
This short answer is yes, Hadley Cells across the Phanerozoic are mostly tied to climate belts that maintain sub-tropical positions, but to this notion, we must add a geological context. Today we are living in an icehouse climate mode and have been for the last 12 Ma. It is tied to the presence of polar ice-sheets that wax and wane over 100,000-year time frames, so moving the position of the Hadley cells and changing the intensity of atmospheric circulation. In this icehouse climate, large eustatically-controlled marine-fed evaporite deposits are not preserved, as sea level falls off the continental shelf every 100,000 years or so. The world's largest bedded salt deposits formed sometime in the last 2 million years, are found in continental interiors, typically in endorheic tectonic sumps in either hot arid or steppe climate settings, often with salt diapirs outcropping or subcropping in the drainage basin and the basin floor can be located at elevations well above sealevel (Part 1; Salty Matters, Tuesday, January 31, 2017).
As we move back into much of Phanerozoic time, we see world climates dominated by greenhouse modes, with shorter episodes of polar ice-sheets and icehouse climates in the Carboniferous-Early Permian ≈ 50 million years long, and the Ordovician, some 15 million years long (Figure 1). Greenhouse climate lacks permanent polar ice sheets, so sea-levels are higher, and 4th-order eustatic amplitudes in sea level are much less (a few meters versus hundred meters plus changes). Greenhouse sets up epeiric and intercontinental seaways that when hydrographically isolated, but still marine-fed, can deposit huge areas of platform evaporites centred in isolated seepage-fed sub-sealevel sumps. These platform deposits can also form outside of Greenhouse times in marine-fed tectonically-induced intracratonic sumps.
Basinwide evaporite deposits span icehouse and greenhouse mode arid belts, whenever a marine-fed subsealevel tectonic sump forms at positions of continent-continental proximity in an arid belt. Across much of the Phanerozoic, basinwide deposits typically accumulated beneath subtropical belts of cool, dry descending air set up in a Hadley cell, and so are located north and south of a tropical equatorial belt. But the accretion of the Pangaean supercontinent (Carboniferous to Jurassic) set up conditions of continentality and orographic shadowing that allowed an arid saline belt to span the hyperarid interior of the supercontinent.

Boucot, A., Chen-Xu, and C. Scotese, 2013, Phanerozoic Paleoclimate: An Atlas of Lithologic Indicators of Climate: Concepts in Sedimentology and Paleontology, v. 11: Tulsa, OK, SEPM, 32 p.

Chen-Xu, A. J. Boucot, C. R. Scotese, F. Junxuan, W. Yuan, and Z. Xiujuan, 2012, Pangaean aggregation and disaggregation with evidence from global climate belts: Journal of Palaeogeography, v. 1, p. 5-13.

Crowley, T. J., and G. R. North, 1991, Paleoclimatology: New York, Oxford University Press, 339 p.

Hudec, M. R., and M. P. A. Jackson, 2007, Terra infirma: Understanding salt tectonics: Earth-Science Reviews, v. 82, p. 1-28.

Lu, J., G. A. Vecchi, and T. Reichler, 2007, Expansion of the Hadley cell under global warming: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 34.

Parrish, J. T., 1993, Climate of the Supercontinent Pangea: Journal of Geology, v. 10.

Ruch, J., J. K. Warren, F. Risacher, T. R. Walter, and R. Lanari, 2012, Salt lake deformation detected from space: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 331-332, p. 120-127.

Sweet, A. C., G. S. Soreghan, D. E. Sweet, M. J. Soreghan, and A. S. Madden, 2013, Permian dust in Oklahoma: Source and origin for Middle Permian (Flowerpot-Blaine) redbeds in Western Tropical Pangaea: Sedimentary Geology, v. 284–285, p. 181-196.

Warren, J. K., 2010, Evaporites through time: Tectonic, climatic and eustatic controls in marine and nonmarine deposits: Earth-Science Reviews, v. 98, p. 217-268.

Warren, J. K., 2016, Evaporites: A compendium (ISBN 978-3-319-13511-3): Berlin, Springer, 1854 p.

Zambito, J. J., and K. C. Benison, 2013, Extremely high temperatures and paleoclimate trends recorded in Permian ephemeral lake halite: Geology, v. 41, p. 587-590.

Ziegler, A. M., S. F. Barrett, C. R. Scotese, and B. W. Sellwood, 1981, Palaeoclimate, Sedimentation and Continental Accretion [and Discussion]: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences, v. 301, p. 253-264.



Evaporites and climate: Part 1 of 2 - Are modern deserts the key?

John Warren - Tuesday, January 31, 2017

Salt deposits and deserts

Much of the geological literature presumes that thick sequences of bedded Phanerozoic evaporites accumulated in hot arid zones tied to the distribution of the world’s deserts beneath regions of descending air within Hadley Cells in a latitudinal belt that is typically located 15 to 45 degrees north or south of the equator (Figure 1a: Gordon, 1975). As this sinking cool air mass approaches the landsurface beneath the descending arm of a Hadley Cell it warms, and so its moisture-carrying capacity increases. The next two articles will discuss the validity of this assumption of evaporites tying to hot arid desert belts in the trade wind belts, first, by a consideration of actual Quaternary evaporite distributions as plotted in a GIS database with modern climate overlays, then in the second article via a look at ancient salt/climate distributions.

Significant volumes of Quaternary evaporite salts are normally interpreted as being allied to the distribution of the world’s hot arid deserts (Figure 1b). In a general way this is true, but, as Warren (2010) shows, the correlation is an oversimplification. A hot arid desert does not necessarily equate to occurrences of laterally extensive bedded evaporites; there must also be a significant long-term brine inflow to the evaporative sump, incoming waters may be meteoric, marine, a hybrid and perhaps the sump is fed brines coming from dissolution of earlier formed salts in the drainage basin, including diapiric salt (Table 1; Warren, 2016).

Actually, there are different ways of defining a desert and by implication its associated evaporites. One accepted approach is to define desert as a terrestrial area receiving less that 250 mm (10 inches) of annual precipitation. Using this definition some 26.2% of the world’s landsurface is desert (Figure 1b). But, in terms of evaporite distribution and the economics of the associated salts, this climatic generalization related to annual rainfall conceals three significant hydrological truisms. All three need to be met in order to accumulate thick sequences of bedded salts (Warren, 2010): 1) For any substantial volume of evaporite to precipitate and be preserved, there must be a sufficient volume of cations and anions in the inflow waters to allow thick sequences of salts to form; 2) The depositional setting and its climate must be located within a longer term basin hydrology that favours preservation of the bedded salt, so the accumulating salt mass can pass into the burial realm; 3) There must be a negative water balance in the basin with the potential for more water to leave the local hydrological sump than enter. When using a rainfall (precipitation) based definition of desert, the significance of these three simple hydrological axioms and the consequences, as to where bedded evaporites accumulate, is lost in the generalization that “evaporites form in the world’s deserts.”

Continental-interior evaporites

In an evaporite context it is better to define and plot saline hydrologies within a climatic framework where deserts are given the same hydrological consideration that is required for evaporite salts to form. That is, a desert is an area of land where annual precipitation (inflow) is less than potential evapotranspiration (outflow). This definition of a desert is the one used by Köppen (1900). With slight modification, his climatological scheme is still in widespread use to breakout the various climatic zones across the world’s landsurface (Kottek et al., 2006). Using a Köppen climate base, figure 2 plots worldwide occurrences of modern saline depositional systems with areas greater than 250 km2. Table 1 compares characteristics of some of the larger Quaternary bedded evaporite settings in marine edge and continental interiors. These regions contain evaporite salts accumulating in saline soils, sabkhas, salinas, saline lakes, playas and salt flats, with textural forms ranging from; isolated crystals and nodules in a terrigenous matrix, to salt crusts, to stacked beds of salts that can be more than 10 metres thick. The majority of the plotted saline areas are in arid regions, as defined by Köppen (Zone B), but not all such areas of widespread salts are in deserts (as defined by Köppen) and not all are in hot climates.

The range of large (>250 km2) saline systems in the world’s arid landscape is more climatically diverse than just evaporite occurrences within a hot arid desert (BWh), although such associations do constitute some 38% of saline occurrences (Figure 3a; Warren, 2010; 2016). Cold arid deserts (BWk) host 23% of large saline occurrences, making a combined total of 61% for large evaporite accumulation (area >250 km2) occurrences in modern arid deserts (BW group), while the arid steppes (BSh and BSk) host another 22%. In total the world’s arid climatic zones host 83% of today’s larger evaporite occurrences (Figure 3b).

This leaves another substantial, but not widely recognized, climate zone where significant volumes of Quaternary evaporites can accumulate, this is the polar tundra (ET); an environment where some 11% of large evaporite areas occur. In terms of evaporite volumes, the polar tundra (ET) is typically an arid high altitude belt, mostly in the Horse Latitude (Trade Wind) belts, and not located in polar or near-polar higher latitudes. The lakes and saline pans of the high plateaus of the Andes (Altiplano) and the Himalayas (Tibetan Plateau) typify this style of tundra (ET) evaporite. Water may be commonplace in the ET zone, but is there mostly as ice, and cryogenic salts are commonplace (see Salty Matters, Feb 24, 2015). The remaining region where significant evaporite volumes are found, some 6% of the total of large saline occurrences is a group of deposits defined by continental interior snow climates (group D), some with hot dry summers with solar evaporites alternating with dry winters favouring the possible accumulation of cryogenic salts (e.g. Great Salt Lake, USA).

In the Northern Hemisphere the occurrence of large evaporite systems within arid deserts and steppe climates (BW and BS settings) extends much further south toward the equator and much further poleward (from 5-55°N) than the narrower range of large evaporite occurrences and associated climates in the southern hemisphere (Figure 4). This hemispheric asymmetry in evaporite occurrence is mostly a response to world-scale adiabatic effects associated with the collision of India with Eurasia and growth of the Himalayas. Today, a Cainozoic mountain range, centred on the Himalyas, diverts world-scale atmospheric air flows from the more north-south trajectory, usually associated with Hadley Cell circulation. For example, the Kunlun Mountains, first formed some 5.3 Ma, prevents moisture from the Indian Monsoon reaching much of the adjacent Tibet Plateau. Its adiabatic rain shadow creates the Taklamakan desert, the second largest active sand desert in the world (BWk).

The uplift of the Himalayas also creates a dry easterly jet stream, moving arid cool air across the Tibet Plateau, around the northern side of the Himalayas, and then equatorward across the Arabian Peninsula toward Somalia where it descends and gains heat. That is, this stream of cool southwesterly-flowing dry air warms as it moves across the Eastern Mediterranean land areas and so heightens existing aridity. This helps create an adiabatic desert zone that today ranges across Arabia and northern Africa almost to the Equator (Figures 5).

In the southern hemisphere, the uplift of the Andes has formed high intermontane depressions and the allied adiabatic aridity that are cooler with lower evaporation rates and higher relied in the immediate basin compared to groundwater depressions in flatter lower-elevation continental interior deserts like the Sahara. This higher stability hydrology favours salars over dry mudflats, as typified by Salar de Atacama and Salar de Uyuni. Atacama has a Quaternary saline sediment fill made up of a more than 900 m thickness of interlayered salt and clay, while Uyuni holds a more than 120 m thick interval of interbedded salt and clay infill, with areas of 3,064 km2 and 9,654 km2 and elevations of 2250 m and 3650 m, respectively (Figure 7a). These salars are the two largest known examples of Quaternary bedded halite accumulation, worldwide. Yet neither resides in hot arid desert settings (BWh); both are located in cold arid deserts (BWk) and in actively subsiding, high altitude (>2500m) intermontane (high relief) endorheic depressions.

Worldwide, distribution of most of the larger (>250 km2) Quaternary evaporite settings located in hot arid (BWh) desert settings, tie either to; 1) endorheic river terminations along desert margins, especially if adjacent to mountain belts (e.g. the various circum Saharan chotts, playas and sabkhas adjacent to Atlas Mountains), or 2) to ancient inherited paleodrainage depressions (as in the majority of the interior salt lakes of Australia or the southern Africa pans). Another hot arid desert (BWh) evaporite association is defined by termination outflow rims of deep artesian systems, as in Lake Eyre North, Australia (8,528 km2, with an ephemeral halite crust up to 2 m thick in its southern portion). Similar, deeply-circulating, meteoric artesian hydrologies help explain the distribution of chotts in the BWh zone of NE Africa. Unlike Atacama and Uyuni in the Andes, none of these modern BWh artesian systems preserve stacked decametre-thick salt beds, nor did they do so at any time in the Quaternary. Rather, the most extensive style of BWh salt in meteoric-fed artesian outflow zones is as dispersed crystals of gypsum and halite in a terrigenous redbed matrix (sabkha) or as visually impressive large ephemeral saline flats and pans covered by metre-scale salt crusts that dissolve and reform with the occasional decadal freshwater flood (Warren 2016; Chapter 3). Sediments of such continental groundwater outflow zones are typically reworked by eolian processes and, due to a lack of long term watertable stability, the longterm sediment fill is matrix-rich and evaporite-poor, with the Quaternary sediment column typified by episodes of deflation, driven by 10,000-100,000 year cycles of glacial-interglacial climate changes.

It seems that to form and preserve laterally-extensive decametre-thick stacked beds of halite in a Quaternary time-framework requires an actively subsiding tectonic depression in a cooler high-altitude continental desert, where temperatures and evaporation rates are somewhat lower than in BWh settings, allowing brine to pond and remain at or near the surface for longer periods (Figures 6, 7a). But perhaps more importantly, all of the larger regions of the Quaternary world, where thick stacked bedded (not dispersed) evaporites are accumulating, are located in continental regions with drainage hinterlands where dissolution of older halokinetic marine-fed salt masses are actively supplying substantial volumes of brine to the near surface hydrology. This halokinetic-supplied set of deposits includes, Salar de Uyuni and Salar de Atacama in the Andean Altiplano, the Kavir salt lakes of Iran, the Qaidam depression of China and the Dead Sea (Table 1).

Marine-edge evaporites

Thick sequences of stacked Quaternary evaporite beds with a marine-brine feed are far less common and far smaller than meteoric/halokinetic Quaternary continental evaporite occurrences. Relatively few marine-fed evaporite regions exist today with areas in excess of 250 km2 (Table 1; Figures 6, 7b). By definition, in order to be able to draw on significant volumes of seawater, these basins must operate with a subsealevel hydrology. This allows large volumes of seawater to seep into the depression and evaporate. It also means most of these deposits are located near the continental edge where a freestanding mass of seawater is not too distant

The largest known deposit of this group is Lake Macleod on the west coast of Australia, with an area of 2,067 km2 and containing a 10m-thick Holocene gypsum/halite bed (Figure 7b). It hosts a saltworks producing some 1,500,000 tonnes/year of halite from lake brines in a BWh setting (Warren, 2016). A smaller marine seepage example, with a similar Quaternary coastal carbonate dune-hosted seepage hydrology, is Lake MacDonnell near the head of the Great Australia Bight. It has an area of 451 km2, a 10m-thick fill of Holocene bedded gypsum and is located in a milder BSk setting, compared to Lake Macleod. Even so, annually, the Lake MacDonnell operation is quarrying more than 1.4 million tonnes of Holocene coarsely-crystalline near-pure gypsum and producing more that 35,000 tonnes of salt via by pan evaporation of lake brines.

Interestingly, when the climatic settings of Holocene coastal salinas of southern and western Australia are compared, all show similar interdunal sump seepage hydrologies with unconfined calcarenite aquifers, yet it is clear that gypsum evaporite beds dominate in BSk and lower precipitation levels, with more carbonate, in Csb coastal settings typified by hot dry summers. Halite dominates the marine-fed bedded fills in BWh coastal settings, while Coorong-style meteoric-fed carbonates dominate in similar interdunal coastal seepage depressions in the more the humid and somewhat cooler Csb settings of the Coorong region.

One of the most visually impressive marine seep systems in the world is Lake Asal, immediately inland of the coast of Djibouti, with an area of only 54 km2 it is much smaller than the 250 km2 cutoff used for this discussion. It is located in a BWh climate, similar to that of the Danakil depression, contains subaqueous textured gypsum and pan halites, and lies at the bottom of a hydrographically-isolated basalt-floored depression with a brine lake surface some 115m below sealevel (Figure 8; see Warren, 2016 Chapter 4 for geological detail). This difference in elevation between the nearby Red Sea and the lake floor drives a marine seep hydrology, so that seawater-derived groundwater escapes as springs along the basaltic lake margin. Most of the cations and anions in the seawater feed, that ultimately accumulate as salts in the subsealevel Asal sump, move lakeward via gravitational seepage along fractures in a basaltic ridge aquifer separating the Red Sea from the brine lake, in what is an actively extending continental rift that will shortly become and arm of the Red Sea.

That there are very few large marine-fed bedded Quaternary evaporite systems is illustrated by summing the total area of large active continental-fed evaporite areas (>250km2) listed in Figure 2, which gives a total surface area worldwide in excess of 360,000 km2. In contrast, the total area of large modern marine-fed bedded salt systems, at slightly less 10,000 km2, is more than an order of magnitude smaller. This low value for large coastal marine-fed evaporite occurrences is in part because many classic coastal sabkhas, with characteristic dispersed evaporites in their supratidal sediments and long considered to be archetypal marine-fed groundwater evaporite system, are now seen as mostly continental brine-fed hydrologies.

For example, the modern Abu Dhabi sabkha system (1,658 km2; BWh) has been shown by Wood (2010) to be a continental groundwater outflow area, where most of ions precipitating as salts in the supratidal zone are supplied by upwelling of deeply-circulated meteoric waters, not seawater flooding (Warren, 2016; Chapter 3). Similar continental hydrologies, resurging into the coastal zone. supply much of the salt accumulating in the suprasealevel sabkhas near Khobar in Saudi Arabia (BWh), Rann of Kutch in India (28,000 km2, BWh), Sabkha Matti (2,955km2, BWh) in the Emirates, and Sabkha de Ndrhamcha (634 km2, BWh) in Mauritania. And yet today all of these large sabkha occurrences are located just inland of modern coastal zones and so, without hydrological knowledge, are easily interpreted as marine. The distinction between a water budget and a salt supply budget emphasizes a general observation in Holocene evaporite systems that, in order to define the main fluid carrier for the salt volume found in any supratidal part of an evaporitic depression, it is important to understand and quantify the nature of the groundwater feed, be it by marine or nonmarine, in both continental-interior and marine-margin settings. It also means that surface runoff and seawater washovers, while at times visually impressive, typically do not supply the greater volume of preserved salts in most modern coastal sabkha systems.

Due to the highly impervious nature of muddy sabkha sediment, an occasional seawater storm flood into a coastal margin mudflat does not mean the pooled seawater ever penetrates the underlying sabkha. Most of its solute load is deposited as an ephemeral surface crust of halite that is a few centimetres thick atop the sabkha muds (Wood et al., 2005). Based on Wood’s and other hydrological studies of modern coastal sabkhas in BWh settings, centred on the Middle East, it seems that the salt supply to most modern coastal sabkha depressions is still not at hydrological equilibrium with the present sealevel, which was reached at the beginning of the Holocene some 6,000-8,000 years ago. That is, modern zones of continental groundwater outflow along an arid coast can have watertables that are up to a metre of two above sealevel and are strongly influenced by the resurgence of seaward-flowing deeply circulating, continental groundwaters (it is axiomatic that surface runoff and local meteoric recharge tend to be limited in BWh settings). In this situation resurging waters in the sabkha tend to have a dominantly continental ionic supply for their preserved salts.

Lastly, in terms of the climatic and hydrological pre-requisites for the accumulations of thick bedded Holocene salt deposits, one must recognize that marine-margin sabkha mudflats do not have the same geohydrology as a near-coastal, hydrographically-isolated seepage-fed sub-sealevel salina depression. A BWh or BSk near-coastal salina is slowly but continually resupplied ions via springs fed by the effusion of seawater, moving under a gravity drive (evaporative drawdown), through an aquifer that is the barrier separating the salina depression from the adjacent ocean. Until the depositional surface reaches hydrological equilibrium, it draws continually on the near limitless supply of ions in the adjacent salty reservoir that is the world’s ocean. Salts growing displacively in the supratidal parts of a sabkha cannot call on a drawdown hydrology and can only be supplied marine salts from salt spray as it is blown inland or from waters washed over the sabkha by the occasional storm driven wash-over and breakout (Figure 9; Warren and Kendall, 1985).

So what?

So, if we based our ideas of where ancient bedded evaporites formed on a strictly uniformitarian approach using Quaternary analogues, then the study of where bedded salts have formed best in the world over the last two million years leads to a conclusion that large bedded salt deposits are not marine fed. Rather, in the Quaternary, thick bedded salts form best in tectonically active, subsiding hypersaline groundwater sumps located in high-altitude high-relief cold-arid deserts. These depressions are hydrographically closed, with the purer, most voluminous, examples of 100m-thick evaporite successions located in tectonically active piggy-back depressions, with lake floors and hydrologies that are more than 2000 m above sea level. Their hydrologies are endorheic and strongly influenced by deeply circulating meteoric waters. In addition, the better examples of thick stacked bedded salts are supplied ions via the dissolution of older marine halokinetic salts in the surrounding drainage basin (Table 1).

Yet, anyone working in ancient (pre-Quaternary) evaporites knows from simple arguments of salt volumetrics versus brine sources, and the nature of the enclosing sediments, that they are part of a dominantly marine basin fill. This will be the focus


Gordon, W. A., 1975, Distribution by latitude of Phanerozoic evaporite deposits: Journal of Geology, v. 83, p. 671-684.

Köppen, W., 1900, Versuch einer Klassification der Klimate, vorzsugsweise nach ihren Beziehungen zur Pflanzenwelt: Geographraphische Zeitschrift, v. 6, p. 593-611.

Kottek, M., J. Grieser, C. Beck, B. Rudolf, and F. Rubel, 2006, World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated: Meteorologische Zeitschrift, v. 15, p. 259-263.

Stieljes, L., 1973, Evolution tectonique récente du rift d'Asal: Review Geographie Physical Geologie Dynamique, v. 15, p. 425-436.

Warren, J. K., 2010, Evaporitic source rocks: mesohaline responses to cycles of “famine or feast” in layered brines, Quaternary carbonate and evaporite sedimentary facies and their ancient analogues, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., p. 315-392.

Warren, J. K., 2016, Evaporites: A compendium (ISBN 978-3-319-13511-3): Berlin, Springer, 1854 p.

Warren, J. K., and C. G. S. C. Kendall, 1985, Comparison of sequences formed in marine sabkha (subaerial) and salina (subaqueous) settings; modern and ancient: Bulletin American Association of Petroleum Geologists, v. 69, p. 1013-1023.

Wood, W. W., 2010, An historical odyssey: the origin of solutes in the coastal sabkha of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, Quaternary carbonate and evaporite sedimentary facies and their ancient analogues, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., p. 243-254.

Wood, W. W., W. E. Sanford, and S. K. Frape, 2005, Chemical openness and potential for misinterpretation of the solute environment of coastal sabkhat: Chemical Geology, v. 215, p. 361-372.

[1] The word desert comes from the Latin dēsertum (originally "an abandoned place"), a participle of dēserere, "to abandon."


Recent Posts


Lomagundi Event gem magadiite well blowout rockburst meta-evaporite salt mine venice salt suture SOP MVT deposit epsomite geohazard blowout hydrothermal potash potash ore Warrawoona Group evaporite karst Quaternary climate gas in salt crocodile skin chert knistersalz Dead Sea caves auto-suture nitrogen methane salt periphery Catalayud Platform evaporite kainitite well log interpretation dark salt cryogenic salt source rock Lake Magadi bischofite vanished evaporite alkaline lake seal capacity anthropogenically enhanced salt dissolution Atlantis II Deep SedEx eolian transport African rift valley lakes Zaragoza organic matter recurring slope lines (RSL) subsidence basin cauliflower chert Messinian Danakhil Depression, Afar Weeks Island salt mine deep meteoric potash Karabogazgol nuclear waste storage Stebnik Potash hectorite dissolution collapse doline Neoproterozoic evaporite-hydrocarbon association sinjarite Neoproterozoic Oxygenation Event GR log lapis lazuli Kara bogaz gol Ure Terrace Hyperarid snake-skin chert Koeppen Climate silica solubility Badenian extrasalt lithium brine anomalous salt zones Koppen climate Archean hydrohalite lithium carbonate water on Mars gas outburst marine brine salt leakage, dihedral angle, halite, halokinesis, salt flow, Sumo RHOB DHAL Belle Isle salt mine Musley potash lazurite 13C enrichment waste storage in salt cavity carbon cycle sulfur Kalush Potash sodium silicate vadose zone sulphur Hell Kettle salt ablation breccia zeolite hydrothermal karst stevensite tachyhydrite Turkmenistan Crescent potash salt karst K2O from Gamma Log intersalt climate control on salt Precambrian evaporites McArthur River Pb-Zn lot's wife carnallitite 18O Mega-monsoon solikamsk 2 brine evolution black salt sinkhole MOP antarcticite saline clay Five Island salt dome trend Sulphate of potash perchlorate silicified anhydrite nodules Magdalen's Road palygorskite halite-hosted cave flowing salt Jefferson Island salt mine Deep seafloor hypersaline anoxic lake Stebnyk potash namakier evaporite dissolution Ingebright Lake HYC Pb-Zn ancient climate Neutron Log Ripon evaporite Salar de Atacama intrasalt circum-Atlantic Salt Basins sepiolite NaSO4 salts High Magadi beds Pilbara CaCl2 brine dihedral angle lithium battery astrakanite sedimentary copper evaporite-metal association base metal Dallol saltpan North Pole salt tectonics potash ore price halite salt seal freefight lake halotolerant carbon oxygen isotope cross plots Paleoproterozoic Oxygenation Event Evaporite-source rock association CO2: albedo Hadley cell: capillary zone stable isotope chert authigenic silica Pangaea Ethiopia trona basinwide evaporite sulfate bedded potash Muriate of potash salt trade mummifiction mirabilite jadarite hydrogen potash wireline log interpretation NPHI log water in modern-day Mars Dead Sea karst collapse allo-suture lunette Gamma log oil gusher Red Sea Proterozoic Density log Realmonte potash collapse doline Corocoro copper hydrological indicator doline gassy salt supercontinent Mesoproterozoic 13C Clayton Valley playa: Great Salt Lake natural geohazard Lake Peigneur gypsum dune nacholite Zabuye Lake CO2 causes of glaciation sulphate mass die-back halokinetic well logs in evaporites H2S mine stability Deep 18O enrichment