Applied aspects & techniques

(2 days total for all listed modules)

Wireline techniques in carbonates

Raw wireline-based porosity logs give values that are typically not reliable representations of values in the reservoir.

 

The module defines petrophysical effects of matrix and porosity variability and the effects on m, n and Sw in a variety of carbonate textures. Using Archies Law, it then applies this knowledge to quantify better the reservoir.

 

         Code #    Topic

  • 3150.01     Conventional Ø logs
  • 3150.02    Matrix vs response
  • 3150.02    What is a real m & n?
  • 3150.03    Reliable Ø interpretation
  • 3150.04    Combining logs - meaning in crossplots
  • 3150.05    Scaling of wireline to core or to seismic

Seismic attributes

Seismic in carbonates is more difficult to interpret than in a typical sand-shale system. Carbonate minerals do not vary much in terms of velocity or density. Generally, velocity contrasts seen in a carbonate are an combination of deposition and post-depositional changes.  For example, many reservoirs are karstified yet others are complicated by irregularly distributed fracture sets and fault corridors.

         Code #    Topic

  • 3175.01      Physics of carbonate minerals
  • 3175.02      Different to shale-sand interpretation
  • 3175.03      Typical attributes of a carbonate platform
  • 3175.04      Imaging diagenesis in seismic
  • 3175.04     What can be revolved in a salt-encased
                       carbonate sliver?

Spur and groove

Reservoir and seal

Reservoir sedimentation and diagenesis (poroperm evolution) varies from field to field and region to region across the Phanerozoic. Understanding the depositional, climatic and diagenetic controls on these  variations is critical to effective and efficient petroleum exploration and field development.

         Code #    Topic

  • 3225.01 Reservoir occurrence by basin setting
  • 3225.02 Reservoir occurrence by area
  • 3225.02 Reservoirs occurrence by time
  • 3225.03 Reservoir occurrence by diagenesis
  • 3225.04 Reservoir prognosis

Fractures, Piccanninnie Ponds, Australia

Sequence stratigraphy in carbonates

Carbonate sediments are mostly biogenic (a carbonate factory is photic) and, once deposited, are subject to the vagaries of diagenesis. These factors must be considered during sequence stratigraphic modelling and the definition of sequence boundaries

This is especially apparent if seismic and eustatic interpretations and poroperm patterns have already been done, based on the siliciclastic assumption that regional sedimentation patterns a response to physical energy and relative sealevel.

         Code #    Topic

  • 3075.01     Eustasy, greenhouse, icehouse
  • 3075.02     Epeiric seaways and saline giants
  • 3075.03     Eustacy, karst, present & past
  • 3075.04     Why are carbonate responses different?
  • 3075.05     Are all carbonates fractured?

Reef and platform plays in SE Asia

Most reservoirs producing from carbonates in SE Asia are hosted in Oligo-Miocene sediments. Unlike the giant fields in the reef-rimmed carbonate platforms of the Middle East and the Americas, these SE Asian fields occur are typically smaller and hosted in bedded heterozoan sediments. This module classifies the various carbonate fields of SE Asia and discusses why they and their depositional models are distinctive, when compared with classic carbonate platform models.

 

         Code #    Topic

  • 2225.01     Miocene tectonics across SE Asia
  • 2225.02     Light penetration, monsoons & island arcs
  • 2225.03     Reservoir occurrences & sedimentology
  • 2225.04     Characteristic seismic signatures
  • 2225.05     Globigerinid reservoirs, unique to SE Asia
  • 2225.06     Prediction in SE Asia

Rhodalgal wackestone

 

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